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光伏电站建设对沙区生态环境的影响
王祯仪1, 汪季1,2, 高永1,3, 党晓宏1,2, 蒙仲举1,3
1.内蒙古农业大学 沙漠治理学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018;2.内蒙古杭锦荒漠生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 内蒙古 鄂尔多斯 017400;3.中央与地方共建风沙物理重点实验室, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018
摘要:
[目的]研究沙漠地区光伏电站建设选址、设计规划、科学管理及生态环境建设等问题旨在为建立光伏与生态相结合的产业可持续发展提供借鉴。[方法]通过对大量文献归纳整理及相关课题研究,分析光伏电站建设期和运营期对土壤、植被、气候、动物及微生物等生态因子的影响,指出现有光伏电站在生态环境建设方面存在的不足,并对光伏电站未来的应用前景和发展方向进行展望。[结果]电站施工期会对站内植物和环境造成一些短期的不利影响。但在运营期间,由于光伏阵列的阻风固沙与遮阴增湿作用和人工管护,有利于站内植被恢复、土壤改良,沙区局地小气候的改善。[结论]今后应深入研究光伏电站对生态环境的影响机制,并制定相应的防治措施,保证生态平衡,实现光伏发电与生态环境的友好协调发展。
关键词:  光伏电站  生态环境  沙区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.01.031
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"沙区光伏发电场与其环境的互馈机制"(41461001)
Impacts of Photovoltaic Power Station Construction on Ecology Environment in Sandy Area
Wang Zhenyi1, Wang Ji1,2, Gao Yong1,3, Dang Xiaohong1,2, Meng Zhongju1,3
1.College of Desert Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China;2.Hangjin Desert Ecological Position Research Station, Erdos, Inner Mongolia 017400, China;3.Wind Erosion Key Laboratory of Central and Government, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China
Abstract:
[Objective] This paper aims study the location selection, design planning, scientific management and ecological environment construction of photovoltaic power stations in desert areas in order to provide basis for the sustainable development of photovoltaic industry and ecology. [Methods] By analyzing a large number of references and related topics, the influences of the photovoltaic power station construction and operation period on soil, vegetation, climate, animals, microorganisms and other ecological factors were analyzed, to reveal the disadvantages of the existing photovoltaic power stations in ecological environment, and to predict the future application prospect and development direction. [Results] The construction period of the power station could cause some short-term adverse effects on plants and environment. However, during the operation period, due to wind resistance, sand fixation, shading and humidification of photovoltaic array and artificial management, it was beneficial to vegetation restoration, soil improvement and local microclimate improvement in the sand area. [Conclusion] In the future, the influence of photovoltaic power stations on the ecological environment should be further studied and the corresponding prevention measures should be implemented, to ensure the ecological balance and realize the friendly and coordinated development of photovoltaic power generation and the ecological environment.
Key words:  photovoltaic power station  ecology environment  sand area