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贵州省修文县猕猴桃生态园区土壤重金属污染现状评价
杜启露1, 程志飞2, 刘品桢3, 吴迪1, 沈乾杰1, 刘晓媛1
1.贵州师范大学 贵州省山地环境信息系统与生态环境保护重点实验室, 贵州 贵阳 550001;2.贵州农业职业学院, 贵州 贵阳 551400;3.黔南民族师范学院 化学化工学院, 贵州 都匀 558000
摘要:
[目的]探讨不同评价方法对贵州省修文县猕猴桃基地适用性,为猕猴桃栽培基地的选择和土壤健康风险研究提供科学依据。[方法]采用单因子污染指数和内梅罗综合污染指数对基地土壤重金属污染程度进行了分析,同时应用Hakanson潜在生态风险指数法和模糊数学法对基地土壤重金属潜在生态风险进行了评价。[结果]A基地中Cu,Ni,Hg分别超过国家土壤环境质量二级标准的1.03,1.14,2.3倍;B基地中Cu和Hg分别超过国家土壤环境质量二级标准1.03,2.0倍;C基地中Cu,Ni和Hg分别超过国家土壤环境质量二级标准1.18,1.01,1.77倍。用内梅罗综合指数法评价结果表明:A基地的土壤属于轻度污染级别,B基地和C基地属于尚清洁级别。3个基地的土壤重金属综合污染指数大小为:A基地(1.09) > C基地(0.93) > B基地(0.91);用潜在生态危害指数法评价结果则表明:A,B,C这3个基地的环境风险综合指数均小于150,表明8种重金属对环境的生态污染指数轻微。3个基地的土壤重金属环境风险综合污染指数大小为:A基地(83.61) > C基地(78.89) > B基地(75.46);用模糊数学法评价结果表明:A,B,C基地土壤均属于清洁范围,3个基地的评价分值大小为:B (97.16) > C (95.44) > A (94.31)。[结论]修文县猕猴桃3个基地的土壤重金属的污染特征大体相同,主要以Cu,Ni,Hg为主,但基地土壤受污染程度轻微,土壤状况良好。
关键词:  猕猴桃园区  土壤  重金属  模糊数学法
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.01.042
分类号:
基金项目:贵州省科技计划项目"基于碳酸钙剂量对黔产红托竹荪富集重金属及产质的机制"黔科合LH[2016]7204号
Evaluation of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Kiwi Fruit Base of Modern Ecological Park in Xiuwen County, Guizhou Province
Du Qilu1, Cheng Zhifei2, Liu Pinzhen3, Wu Di1, Shen Qianjie1, Liu Xiaoyuan1
1.Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Information System of Mountainous Areas and Protection of Ecological Environment, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China;2.Guizhou Vocational College of Agriculture, Guiyang, Guizhou 551400, China;3.School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qiannan Normal University for Nationalities, Duyun, Guizhou 558000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] To explore the applicability of different evaluation methods to kiwi fruit base in Xiuwen County, Guizhou Province, in order to provide scientific basis for selecting cultivation base of kiwi and soil health risk research. [Methods] The pollution situations of the heavy metals in soil were analyzed using the single factor pollution index and Nemero comprehensive index method. Moreover, the potential ecological risk of the heavy metals was evaluated using Hakanson potential ecological risk index and fuzzy mathematics method. [Results] The content of Cu, Ni and Hg in the base A were 1.03, 1.14 and 2.3 times higher than those of the national soil environment quality standard, respectively. The contents of Cu and Hg in the base B were 1.03 and 2.0 times higher and the content of Cu, Ni and Hg in the base C were 1.18, 1.01 and 1.77 times higher than those of the national soil environmental quality standard, respectively. The results by Nemero comprehensive index method showed that the soil of base A belonged to mild pollution, base B and C was non-pollution. The comprehensive pollution indexes of heavy metals in the soil of the three bases were ranked as: base A (1.09) > base C (0.93) > base B (0.91). The principle of potential ecological hazard index showed that the comprehensive index of environmental risk was less than 150 in all the three bases, indicating that the ecological pollution index of eight heavy metals to the environment was light. The comprehensive pollution indexes of soil heavy metal environmental risk in three bases were ranked as: base A (83.61) > base C (78.89) > base B (75.46). The soil in A, B and C base was clean evaluated by fuzzy mathematics method, and the evaluation value of three bases was ranked as : B (97.16) > C (95.44) > A (94.31). [Conclusion] Comprehensive analysis showed that the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in the soil of three bases of kiwi fruit were basically the same, and the main heavy metal pollution was from Cu, Ni, Hg, but the pollution was light, and the soil was in good condition.
Key words:  kiwi fruit base  soil  heavy metal  fuzzy mathematics method