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4种适生植物对陇东地区油污土壤场地生态修复的响应
井明博1,2,3, 周天林1,2,3, 梁健4, 杨蕊琪3, 吴胜伟5
1.甘肃省高校陇东生物资源保护与利用省级重点实验室, 甘肃 庆阳 745000;2.陇东学院 生命科学与技术学院, 甘肃 庆阳 745000;3.甘肃省极端环境微生物资源与工程重点 实验室, 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 甘肃 兰州 730000;4.陕西师范大学 生命科学学院, 陕西 西安 710119;5.西安环发环保工程有限公司, 陕西 西安 710068
摘要:
[目的]选取陇东黄土高原地区4种本地植物作为试验材料,进行了为期3个月的场地生态修复工程,旨在为该地区开展油污土壤植物场地生态修复技术提供新的植物品种和基础数据参考。[方法]采用常规方法测定了不同油污浓度胁迫下受试植物根际土壤总石油烃(TPH)降解率、降解菌数量及部分生长指标在不同油污浓度胁迫时响应情况。[结果]①紫花苜蓿和金盏菊根际TPH降解率在轻度污染时相对较高,而重度污染时菊科植物显著高于豆科植物(p<0.05);②油污浓度增加可显著抑制菊科植物根长以及豆科植物根际石油降解菌数量(p<0.05),亦对紫花苜蓿地上部干重及金盏菊地下部干重和株高则有显著促进作用(p<0.05);③方差分解结果显示:石油降解菌数量×TPH转移效率以及植物生长指标×石油降解菌数量的交互作用是决定两种菊科植物TPH降解率的关键因素。[结论]4种适生植物各项指标对陇东地区油污土壤场地生态修复的响应方式因种而异,而两种菊科植物油污耐受性和修复效果相对较好,因此在该地区具备一定的应用潜力。
关键词:  油污土壤  植物修复  陇东地区  适生植物
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.01.045
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"陇东黄土高原植物微生物组合联合修复石油污染土壤降解机制研究"(31860148);科技部国家国际合作专项(2014DFA30330);甘肃省青年基金计划项目(17JR5RM354);中央高校基本科研业务费科技成果转化培育项目(GK201806007);甘肃省高等学校科研项目(2014B-091);甘肃省极端环境微生物资源与工程重点实验室开放基金(EEMRE201601);陇东学院青年资助项目(XYZK1605)。
Response of Four Kinds of Adaptable Plants to Ecological Restoration of Crude-Oil Contaminated Soil in Eastern Gansu Province
Jing Mingbo1,2,3, Zhou Tianlin1,2,3, Liang Jian4, Yang Ruiqi3, Wu Shengwei5
1.University Provincial Key Laboratory for Protection and Utilization of Longdong Bio-resources in Gansu Province, Qingyang, Gansu 745000, China;2.College of Life Science and Technology, Longdong University, Qingyang, Gansu 745000, China;3.Key Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Microbial Resources and Engineering of Gansu Province, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China;4.College of Life Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710119, China;5.Xi'an H & F Environment Protection Engineering Company Limited, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710068, China
Abstract:
[Objective] In order to select the optimal plant varieties for the ecological remediation of crude oil contaminated soil in Eastern Gansu Province, 4 kinds of indigenous plants of this area were selected as the experimental material, and site ecological remediation project was conducted with an experimental period of three months. [Methods] The degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), the number of crude-oil degrading bacteria and some plant growth indicators in rizospheric soil of four indigenous plants under different TPH concentrations stress were investigated by the conventional method. [Results] ① The rizospheric soil TPH degradation rate of Medicago sativa and Calendula officinalis was higher than that of leguminous plants(p<0.05), and the chrysanthemum plants were significantly higher than the legumes during severe pollution. ② The increase of TPH concentration could significantly inhibit the root length of compositae plants and the amount of rhizospheric crude-oil degradation bacteria of leguminous plants (p<0.05), while significantly promoted the dry weight of the aboveground part of M. sativa and plant length and dry weight of the underground part of C. officinalis (p<0.05). ③ The results of variance decomposition demonstrated that the interaction effect among the amount of crude-oil degradation bacteria×TPH transfer efficiency and the interaction of plant growth indexes×the amount of crude-oil degradation bacteria were the key factors determining the TPH degradation rate of C. officinalis and Gerbera jamesonii. [Conclusion] The response of 4 indigenous plants to the ecological restoration of crude-oil contaminated soil was varied from species to species, and the compositae plants exhibited better resistance and remediation effect, thus it had certain application potential in Eastern Gansu Province.
Key words:  crude-oil contaminated soil  phytoremediation  Eastern Gansu Province  adaptable plant