文章摘要
.世界水土保持学会副主席,水土保持专家José Luis Rubio先生论森林火灾后土壤的保护与修复:生物工程的作用[J].水土保持通报,2019,(1):310~316
世界水土保持学会副主席,水土保持专家José Luis Rubio先生论森林火灾后土壤的保护与修复:生物工程的作用
Soil Protection and Restoration After Forest Fires: The Role of Bioengineering -Commented by Mr. José Luis Rubio, A Scientist of Soil and Water Conservation Research, Deputy President of WASWAC
投稿时间:2018-10-13  修订日期:2018-11-15
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.01.048
中文关键词: 森林火灾  生物工程  土壤保持与修复  环境一致性
英文关键词: forest fires  bioengineering  soil conservation and restoration  environmental coherence
基金项目:
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中文摘要:
      [目的]讨论火灾地区土壤保护的基本方法,旨在从生物多样性和美学价值方面,阐述新兴生物工程领域在修复与固结土壤,保护土壤免遭不同类型侵蚀,维持景观质量等方面中的应用。[方法]通过综述和评价现行生物工程技术在西班牙森林火灾后土壤保持和土壤修复中的应用,阐述了有关基本原理,并介绍了一些生物工程技术在受火灾影响的不同地区的成功应用案例。[结果]生物工程技术用于森林火灾后土壤保护和修复的重要基础知识部分仍基于土壤保持的一些传统原理,尤其在与具体干预的立地和简单技术应用的生态一致性方面。同时也不应低估新近土木工程的作用。这些土木工程技术(包括金属笼的使用)为生物要素(主要是植物物质)发挥更大作用提供了条件,而这些生物要素是在特定干预区气候或生物物理条件下发挥固结土壤作用的重要因素。与活体材料一起使用的还有各种生物物质,例如植物残留物,砍下的灌木,木质化元素,以及多种土工织物。这些技术可以归结分为4组主要形式:①土壤保护技术,②地面稳定技术,③重建技术组合,④其他稳定技术。[结论]用于土壤保护的生物工程技术提供了一种更为环保和具有长期有效性的方法。它同时具有耗资低,适应性强和提供多功能景观效益等优势。然而,生物技术也存在一些缺陷,例如人力资源需求,缺乏有关知识和合适的植物物质,特别是在一些干旱气候地区。尽管如此,生物工程方法在满足森林火灾影响后土壤保护的紧急干预措施这类新需求过程中表现出其正在崛起,有应用前途和快速发展的态势。
英文摘要:
      [Objevtive] The basic approaches in soil protection in burned forest areas were discussed in order to expound the emerging field of bioengineering applied to soil restoration and stabilization, to soil protection against different types of erosion, in the maintenance of landscape quality and in terms of biodiversity and aesthetic values. [Methods] This study was conducted by reviewing and evaluating the current techniques of bioengineering applied to soil conservation and restoration after forest fires in Spain, setting out some basic principles and describing a few successful examples of applications in various areas affected by forest fires. [Results] The key part of the fundamentals of bioengineering applied to conservation and restoration of soils is based on some traditional principles of soil conservation, especially in regard to the ecological coherence with the specific site of intervention and the use of simple techniques. Also we should not underestimate the role of more recent techniques of civil engineering. These techniques (e.g. use of gabions) are subjected to a process of introducing a greater role for the biological elements (mainly plant materials) which are the main actors in stabilizing the soil in relation to the climate and biophysical characteristics of the area of intervention. Along with living materials, various biomaterials such as plant residues, cut bushes, lignified elements and the wide range of geotextils are also used. These techniques are gathered into four main groups: ① techniques to protect soil, ② stabilization of the ground, ③ combination of reconstruction techniques, and ④ additional stabilization techniques. [Conclusion] Bioengineering applied to soil conservation provides a more environmentally tailored approach that promotes more efficiency in the long term. It also shows advantages in aspects such as its low cost, better adaptation and benefits of multifunctional landscapes. Nevertheless, it includes some important drawbacks such as manpower requirements and the lack of knowledge and availability of suitable plant material, especially in areas of dry climate conditions. Despite these difficulties, bioengineering is an emerging, promising and fast growing applied technique for the new demands on soil protection in the cases of emergency interventions after forest fires impacts.
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