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国际荒漠化协会联合主席,水土保持专家王飞先生论基于土盐-水盐双分离的旱区盐碱地水土资源管理模式
作者单位
摘要:
[目的]从区域资源综合利用与水土资源管理角度探讨干旱地区土壤盐碱地治理问题,旨在寻求旱区盐碱地治理与开发利用新模式,以创新旱区盐碱地治理观念与技术,为旱区农业可持续发展、生态保护和环境治理提供支撑。[方法]根据在陕西、宁夏和新疆等省区的野外调查和研究经验,结合有关水土资源高效利用研究成果,通过综合分析目前国内外盐碱地治理方法中存在的主要问题,提出了一种旱区盐碱地水土资源高效利用的管理新模式。[结果]旱区盐碱地水土资源管理新模式是通过高效水调控促进土盐-水盐分离(简称:旱区盐碱地双分离治理模式),可以综合概括为"减少区域水损失,低耗水充分洗盐,集约化水盐分离,水土资源高效利用"。其中"减少区域水损失"是旱区水资源管理与生态保障的前提,"低耗水充分洗盐"是节省洗盐的时间成本和水资源成本的基础,"集约化水盐分离"是实现水盐分离和水盐分别再利用的核心技术,"水土资源高效利用"是旱区农业发展用水的核心经济原则。[结论]旱区盐碱地双分离治理模式通过集约化水土资源管理,可以提高水盐分离效率,提升土地和水资源利用效率,其资源、环境和生态风险小,治理效益持续时间长,有助于维持和提升盐碱地治理的区域经济功能和生态系统服务价值。
关键词:  干旱地区  盐碱地  土盐—水盐分离措施  水土资源管理  高效利用  可持续性
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.01.049
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划"黄土高原水土流失综合治理技术及示范"(2016YFC0501707);国家自然科学基金项目"次降雨特征与植被变化对半干旱黄土区土壤水分补充的协同影响"(41771558);中国科学院国际合作局对外合作重点项目和欧盟委员会Horizon2020项目"基于中欧农业生产与环境恢复的交互式土壤质量评价"(16146KYSB20150001,635750)
A Strategy of Soil and Water Resource Management Based on Double Desalinization Approach in Saline-Alkali Land of Arid Areas-Commented by Mr. Wang Fei, A Scientist of Soil and Water Conservation Research, Co-chair of DesertNet International
Abstract:
[Objective] The countermeasures for soil salinization control based on the comprehensive utilization of regional resources and management of soil and water resources were discussed in order to develop a new strategy for the management of soil and water resources and provide support for agricultural sustainable development, ecological protection and environmental management in semiarid and arid areas. [Methods] We reviewed the details on the measurements of salt-affected soils worldwide, and summed up the research experiences based on the field investigation in arid areas suffering from soil salinization in Northwest China. A new strategy was proposed by integrated analyzing the main issues existing in saline-alkali treatments. [Results] The main approach of the new developed strategy has two steps: to separate the salts from soil firstly, and then to desalt the salted drainage for irrigation, that would improve the efficiency of soil salinization control measures. It can be abbreviated as "double desalinization approach (DDA)" of soil salinization control measures. The strategy of DDA of soil salinization control measures can be summarized as "reducing regional water loss, leaching of soil salts with less water, intensive desalination of salted soil, and efficient utilization of soil and water resources". Among them, reducing regional water loss is the premise of water resource management and ecological protection in arid area. Leaching of soil salts with less water is the basis to reduce the cost of salt leaching time and water resources. Intensive desalination of salted soil is the key technology to separate the salts and water for reusing. And efficient utilization of water and soil resources is the core economic principle of agricultural development in semiarid and arid areas. [Conclusion] The new strategy of DDA of soil salinization control measures can increase the efficiency of desalination of soil and water by intensive management of soil and water resources in the arid areas. The risks relating to regional natural resources, environment and ecology of this strategy are relatively lower than the traditional methods, and the benefits of management could last for a longer time. The strategy can maintain and improve the regional economic development and the ecological services of ecosystem.
Key words:  semiarid and arid areas  saline-alkali land  double desalinization approach (DSA) of soil salinization control measure  soil and water resource management  high efficient utilization  sustainability