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典型复垦工业场地土壤垂直剖面重金属污染特征及潜在生态风险
徐志豪1, 吴健2, 王敏2, 黄宇驰2, 鄢忠纯2, 吴建强2, 黄沈发2
1.东华大学 环境科学与工程学院, 上海 201620;2.上海市环境科学研究院, 上海 200233
摘要:
[目的]揭示典型复垦工业场地中重金属元素污染特征及潜在生态风险,为此类工业复垦场地管理和治理提供科学依据。[方法]分析上海市33块典型复垦工业场地表层、中层和深层土壤中8项重金属(砷、镉、铬、铜、镍、铅、锌、汞)的含量,采用内梅罗指数法和潜在生态风险指数法对复垦工业场地土壤重金属污染进行生态风险评价。[结果]①复垦工业场地土壤中重金属整体风险可控,17个点位重金属含量超过风险筛选值,其中以表层土壤中Cu和Zn污染最为突出,最大超标倍数分别为3.24,3.73倍。下层土壤中重金属平均含量均低于上海市土壤背景值,部分点位存在一定的重金属累积;②复垦工业场地表层、中层和深层土壤重金属内梅罗综合污染指数分别为1.21,0.78,0.73,分别处于轻度污染、尚清洁和尚清洁水平,其中表层Cd和Zn污染最为突出;③除表层土壤Hg(中度)和Cd(中度)外,其余重金属元素均存在轻微生态风险,表层土壤潜在生态风险指数(RI)为107.22,总体潜在生态风险接近中等水平,中层及深层土壤处于轻微潜在生态风险水平。[结论]复垦工业场地土壤重金属存在一定程度的累积性污染,其中Cu,Cd,Hg和Zn污染较为突出,考虑到毒性响应因素,则Hg和Cd更应引起关注。
关键词:  复垦工业场地  土壤垂直剖面  重金属  内梅罗  潜在生态风险
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.007
分类号:X53, X826
基金项目:上海市环境保护局重大科研项目“上海市农田土壤生态风险评估与防控研究”(沪环科[2016]第7号),“上海城市土壤污染风险甄别及监测预警技术研究与应用”(沪环科[2018]第3号);上海市科学技术委员会科研计划项目“工业污染场地典型污染物污染机理和健康风险评估技术研究”(17DZ1202200)
Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal in Vertical Soil Profiles of Typical Reclaimed Industrial Sites
Xu Zhihao1, Wu Jian2, Wang Min2, Huang Yuchi2, Yan Zhongchun2, Wu Jianqiang2, Huang Shenfa2
1.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China;2.Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The pollution characteristics and potential ecological risk of heavy matals in reclaimed industrial sites were investigated in order to provide scientific basis for the management and remediation of similar reclaimed industrial sites.[Methods] Eight heavy metals(As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) were quantitatively analyzed in the surface, subsurface and deep soil of thirty-three typical reclaimed industrial sites in Shanghai City. The potential ecological risk and pollution degree of heavy metals in the sites were evaluated by using Nemerow index and potential ecological risk index.[Results] ① The risk of 8 heavy metals was acceptable overall. The contents of heavy metals in 17 points were higher than the screening value, while the pollution of Cu and Zn in surface soil was the most prominent. The average contents of 8 heavy metals in subsurface and deep soils were lower than the background value of Shanghai City, with certain accumulation of heavy metals in some points; ② The Nemerow index of heavy metals in vertical soil profile was 1.21, 0.78 and 0.73 respectively, was in a light pollution or still clean level. Among which, Cd and Zn in surface soil were the most prominent; ③ The heavy metals in the reclaimed industrial sites were all at a slightly latent ecological risk level, except of Hg(medium) and Cd(medium) in surface soil. The potential ecological risk of surface soil was 107.22, which was close to a medium level, while the risks of subsurface and deep soil were mild.[Conclusion] The soil heavy metals in the sites were in an accumulative pollution to certain extent and the pollution of Cu, Cd, Hg and Zn were the most prominent. If the toxic response factors were concerned, Hg and Cd should be paid more attention.
Key words:  reclaimed industrial sites  vertical soil profile  heavy metal  Nemerow index  potential ecological risk