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土壤理化性质和微生物活性对水田改果园的动态响应
杨东伟1,2,3, 章明奎1, 刘千千2, 张鹏启2, 李雪2, 董静2, 黄笑2
1.浙江大学 环境与资源学院, 浙江 杭州 310058;2.河南师范大学 旅游学院, 河南 新乡 453007;3.广西大学 商学院, 广西 南宁 530004
摘要:
[目的]探讨土壤微生物特性及环境因子对水田改果园的动态响应规律,为进一步研究土地利用变化对土壤生态环境的影响,预测水田改果园后土壤质量的长期变化趋势提供科学依据。[方法]在浙江省范围内选择1个代表性的水田改果园土壤系列,采用后切时间序列法,分析水田改果园后土壤理化性质、土壤微生物生物量及酶活性等指标的动态响应规律。[结果]水田改果园后,土壤含水率、>0.25 mm水稳定性团聚体、pH值、有机质、盐基饱和度、全氮、碱解氮含量显著(p<0.01)下降,全钾、有效钾、全磷和有效磷含量分别增加了21.9%,54.7%,42.0%和6.65倍,并且这些指标都与植树年限呈极显著(p<0.01)相关。改果园后,土壤微生物生物量碳和氮平均含量分别下降了74.4%和73.3%,土壤脲酶和酸性磷酸酶活性平均值分别增加了40.0%和41.8%,土壤过氧化氢酶活性平均值下降69.3%,并都与植树年限呈极显著相关(p<0.01)。[结论]水田改果园后土壤环境因子发生阶段性变化,且土地利用方式的影响要大于利用年限的影响。水田改果园后土壤综合肥力下降,并对生态环境和土地可持续利用带来不利影响。
关键词:  土地利用  水田  土壤环境因子  酶活性  演替
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.008
分类号:S154
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“水耕人为土诊断层/诊断特性的空间分布规律与田间识别模式研究”(41571207);河南师范大学博士启动项目(qd15152);河南师范大学青年科学项目(2016QK33)
Response of Soil Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Activity on Land-use Conversion from Paddy Field to Orchard Farm
Yang Dongwei1,2,3, Zhang Mingkui1, Liu Qianqian2, Zhang Pengqi2, Li Xue2, Dong Jing2, Huang Xiao2
1.College of Environment and Resources, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China;2.College of Tourism, He'nan Normal University, Xinxiang, He'nan 453007, China;3.Business College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The dynamic response of soil microbial characteristics and environmental factors to the change of paddy fields into orchards was discussed in order to provide a scientific basis for further study of the impact of land use change on soil ecological environment and prediction of the long-term change trend of soil quality after the change of paddy fields to orchards.[Methods] One representative soil series of land-use change from paddy to orchard were chosen in Zhejiang Province, furthermore, the law of dynamic response of soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activity and soil microbial biomass to land-use change was analyzed using the post-cut time series method.[Results] Soil moisture, > 0.25 mm water stable aggregate, pH value, organic matter, base saturation, total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen fell down significantly(p < 0.01), however, total phosphorus, available phosphorus and available potassium increased by 21.9%,54.7%,42.0% and 6.65 times, respectively, and these indexes were correlated with years of planting trees significantly(p < 0.01). After the land-use change, the average of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen decreased by 74.4% and 73.3%, respectively. The average of soil urease and acid phosphatase activity increased by 40.0% and 41.8%, respectively. However, the mean value of soil catalase activity decreased by 69.3%, and they were significantly(p < 0.01) correlated with the time of planting trees.[Conclusion] After the land-use conversion from the paddy field to orchard farm, soil environmental factors changed periodically, and the influence of land-use pattern was greater than that of land-use history. Moreover, soil comprehensive fertility decreased, and the ecological environment and sustainability of land use were adversely affected.
Key words:  land use  paddy field  soil environmental factors  enzymatic activity  succession