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河北省太行山4种经济林林冠层的水文效应
刘希庆, 邢晓光, 刘凤婵, 刘斌, 王淮亮
河北省水资源研究与水利技术试验推广中心, 河北 石家庄 050061
摘要:
[目的]探索河北省太行山区4种经济林林冠层的水文效应,揭示其水源涵养功能。[方法]选取位于石家庄市西南部山区的核桃、苹果、杏、樱桃成林,雨量筒测定穿透雨量,树干缠绕法测定树干径流量,分析林冠层水文效应。[结果]4种经济林的林内穿透雨量、树干径流量均随林外降雨量增加而增大;林外降雨量达到45.1 mm之前,林冠截留量随之增加而增大,之后增大趋势减缓;次降雨量在14.3~29.5 mm时,4种经济林的林冠截留作用最大,截留量占比均在20%以上;林外降雨量一定的情况下,4种经济林林冠层对降雨的截留量有较大差异,其排序为:樱桃 > 苹果 > 核桃 > 杏,与郁闭度大小排序一致,林内穿透雨量与截留量排序相反;树干径流量排序为:樱桃 > 杏 > 核桃 > 苹果,与平均地径大小排序基本一致。[结论]4种经济林林冠层对降雨的再分配作用明显,林冠截留作用主要与林外降雨量有关,受林分类型、树冠结构特征如郁闭度、树木地径等的影响。
关键词:  太行山  经济林  林冠层  水文效应
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.013
分类号:S715.2
基金项目:河北省水利科技推广项目“河北太行山区主要经济林水土保持功能及栽培技术研究”(2016-016)
Canopy Hydrological Effects of four Economic Forests in Taihang Mountain, Hebei Province
Liu Xiqing, Xing Xiaoguang, Liu Fengchan, Liu Bin, Wang Huailiang
Hebei Promiotion Center of Water Resources Research and Hydrological Technology Experiment, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050061, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The canopy hydrological effects of four economic forests in Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province were studied in order to reveal their water conservation functions.[Methods] Four main economic forests including walnut, apple, apricot, and cherry in the southwest mountainous area of Shijiazhuang City were selected. The throughfall was measured by rain tube, and the stemflow was measured by trunk winding method. The hydrological effects of canopy in these forests were then analyzed.[Results] The trunk runoff and throughfall of the four economic forests increased with the rainfall. The canopy interception increases with the rainfall until which reached 45.1 mm, and later the increasing trend slowed down. When the rainfall ranged from 14.3 to 29.5 mm at one precipitation event, the canopy interception of the four economic forests was the largest with 20% of interception percentage at least. When the rainfall was constant, the canopy interceptions of four economic forests were different, with following order, cherry > Apple > walnut > apricot, which was consistent with the order of crown density. The order of trunk runoff respected the following order, cherry > apricot > walnut > apple, which was basically consistent with the order of averaged base diameter.[Conclusion] The redistribution effect of canopy on the rainfall was obvious in the four economic forests, mainly related to the rainfall, and also influenced by the forest type, canopy density, and base diameter.
Key words:  Taihang Mountain  economic forest  forest canopy  hydrological effect