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第四类脲酶抑制剂对土壤脲酶活性和微生物量的影响
王趁义1,2, 陈仙仙1, 黄兆玮1, 付佳佳1, 汪少奇1
1.浙江万里学院, 生物与环境学院, 浙江 宁波 315100;2.宁波晟乾环境技术开发有限公司, 浙江 宁波 315100
摘要:
[目的]研究第四类脲酶抑制剂对土壤微生物的影响,揭示此类脲酶抑制剂的微生物学效应,为农业生产中施用含Schiff碱配合物型脲酶抑制剂缓控释尿素的安全性评价提供理论依据。[方法]采用室内恒温恒湿培养的方法,测定在不同浓度(按尿素施用量的0.1%,0.5%,1%)新型Schiff碱铜配合物型脲酶抑制剂作用下土壤脲酶活性以及土壤细菌、真菌和放线菌微生物量指标。[结果]①当抑制剂施用浓度为0.1%和0.5%时对土壤脲酶活性影响不显著,当施用浓度为1%时,对土壤脲酶活性抑制效果最好,最大抑制率达40.8%,起到了适度调控的目的;②土壤细菌、真菌和放线菌对尿素水解的敏感程度不同,其中放线菌和真菌比较敏感,尿素水解对其最大抑制率分别为46.4%和89.7%。与此相反,尿素的水解反而会促进细菌生长,最大促进率达83.6%;③第四类脲酶抑制能够促进土壤细菌、放线菌和真菌的生长,其对细菌、放线菌和真菌的最大促进率分别为86.2%,31.9%和83.6%。因此第四类脲酶抑制剂对土壤放线菌生长的促进作用较小,对土壤细菌和真菌生长的促进作用较大。[结论]第四类脲酶抑制剂对土壤脲酶活性有很好地抑制作用且能促进土壤细菌、真菌和放线菌的生长,施用抑制剂浓度为1%时效果最显著,即1%为其最佳用量。
关键词:  第四类脲酶抑制剂  Schiff碱配合物  土壤微生物  脲酶活性  生态安全
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.024
分类号:Q556, S154.3
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“第四类新型脲酶抑制剂的优化合成、活性筛选及其作用机制研究”(31071856);浙江省自然科学基金项目(LY16C150002);浙江省重中之重学科“生物工程”学生创新项目(CX2017002;CX2017004);国家级大学生创新创业训练计划项目(201810876047X);浙江省公益性技术应用研究项目(2010C32060)
Effects of Fourth-type Urease Inhibitors on Soil Urease Activity and Microbial Growth
Wang Chenyi1,2, Chen Xianxian1, Huang Zhaowei1, Fu Jiajia1, Wang Shaoqi1
1.College of Biology and Environment, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315100, China;2.Ningbo Shengqian Environmental Technology Development Co., Ltd., Ningbo, Zhejiang 315100, China
Abstract:
[Objectives] The effect of the fourth-type urease inhibitors on soil microorganisms was investigated to provide a theoretical basis for the safety evaluation of slow-release urea containing Schiff base complexes urease inhibitors in agricultural production.[Methods] Using indoor constant temperature and humidity incubation, the soil urease activity and bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were determined at different concentrations(0.1%, 0.5%, 1% of urea application) under the condition of new Schiff copper base urease inhibitors.[Results] ① When the inhibitor concentration was 0.5% and 0.1%, the effect on soil urease activity was not significant. When the concentration was 1%, the inhibitory effect on soil urease activity was the best, and the maximum inhibition rate was 40.8%, which played the role of moderate regulation. ② Soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes showed different sensitivity to urea hydrolysis, among which actinomycetes and fungi were more sensitive. The maximum inhibitory rate of urea hydrolysis on soil actinomycetes and fungi was 46.4% and 89.7%, respectively. In contrast, the hydrolysis of urea can promote the growth of bacteria, and the maximum promotion rate is 83.6%. ③ The fourth-type urea inhibition could promote the growth of soil bacteria, actinomyces and fungi. The maximum promotion rate of bacteria, actinomyces and fungi is 86.2%, 31.9% and 83.6%, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the fourth-type urease inhibitors have little effect on actinomycetes, while have greater effect on bacteria and fungi.[Conclusion] The fourth-type urease inhibitor has a good inhibitory effect on soil urease activity and can promote the growth of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The optimal application concentration of the fourth-type urease inhibitor is 1%.
Key words:  the fourth type of urease inhibitor  Schiff base complexes  soil microorganism  urease activity  ecological safety