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2007-2016年贵州省水资源生态足迹的演化特征
周子琴1, 苏维词1,2, 郑群威1
1.重庆师范大学 地理与旅游学院, 重庆 401331;2.贵州省山地资源研究所, 贵州 贵阳 550001
摘要:
[目的]分析近10 a来贵州省及各地市的水资源生态足迹及其时空变化规律,揭示其主要影响因素,为该省社会经济发展与水资源可持续利用提供参考依据。[方法]以贵州省为例,基于生态足迹模型,计算该省2007-2016年水资源生态足迹及水资源生态承载力,并分析其演化过程。[结果]①贵州省水资源生态足迹由2007年的1.62×107 hm2上升至2016年的1.66×107 hm2,整体呈波动上升趋势。水资源生态承载力小于生态足迹需水量,但生态承载力的年际变化明显,导致生态压力指数为0.105~0.203。水资源存在1.779~3.827 hm2/人的生态盈余,可持续开发利用潜力较大。②从工业、农业、生活及生态各部分用水的人均生态足迹变化看,人均工业用水生态足迹下降明显,2007-2016年下降了18.9%,主要得益于万元GDP生态足迹的持续下降;人均农业用水和生活用水生态足迹变化幅度小,分别维持在0.085,0.024 hm2/人左右。③2014-2016年贵州省各地州市人均水资源生态足迹、人均水资源生态承载力以及生态盈余的空间变化差异显著,整体上表现为与经济发展呈明显的正相关。经济较为发达的中西部地区,水资源需求量大,生态盈余较低;经济较为落后的东部地区,水资源需求量较小,生态盈余较大。[结论]贵州省水资源消耗量减少,利用效率逐渐提高,水资源开发利用处于安全状态,可开发利用空间大。但贵州省9个市州水资源生态足迹与生态承载力存在严重分布不均的现象,需合理调配和利用。
关键词:  水资源生态足迹  水资源生态承载力  生态盈余  贵州省
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.036
分类号:X826, TV211.1
基金项目:贵州省科技计划子专题“贵州省水资源分布与开发利用途径研究”(黔科合J重大字[2015]2001);国家十三五重点研发计划课题“西部石漠化地区农村饮用水与污水处理关键技术研究与示范”(2016YFC0400708)
Evolution Characteristics of Water Resource Ecological Footprint of Guizhou Province from 2007 to 2016
ZHOU Ziqin1, SU Weici1,2, ZHENG Qunwei1
1.School of Geography and Tourism, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China;2.Institute of Mountain Resources and Environment in Guizhou Province, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China
Abstract:
[Objective] This paper analyzed the ecological footprint of water resources and its spatial and temporal changes in cities of Guizhou Province, and also of province wide values in recent 10 years, and to recognize its main influencing factors in order to provide reference for social and economic development of the province and the sustainable utilization of water resources.[Methods] Taking Guizhou Province as an example, based on the ecological footprint model, the ecological footprint of water resources and the ecological carrying capacity of water resources in the province in 2007-2016 years were calculated, and its evolution process was analyzed.[Results] ① The ecological footprint of water resources in Guizhou Province increased from 1.62×107 hm2 in 2007 to 1.66×107 hm2 in 2016. The ecological carrying capacity of water resources was less than the water demand of ecological footprint, but the inter-annual variation of ecological carrying capacity was obvious, as a result, the ecological stress index was much less than 1. The water resources had an ecological surplus of 1.779~3.827 hm2/person, so the potential for sustainable development and utilization was relatively large. ② Seeing from the changes in the per capita ecological footprint of water used in industry, agriculture, life and various ecological parts, the per capita ecological footprint of industrial water drooped significantly by 18.9% from 2007 to 2016, mainly because of the continuous reduction of ten thousand yuan GDP ecological footprint; The per capita ecological footprint of agricultural water and domestic water changed a little, which maintained at 0.085 hm2/person and 0.024 hm2/person, respectively. ③ The spatial variations of per capita ecological footprint of water and per capita ecological carrying capacity of water resources, as well as the ecological surplus in different cities and town in the Guizhou Province from 2014 to 2016 were significantly different. In an overall, the performance was significantly and positively correlated with economic development, while the central and western regions that had developed well in economy had a large demand for water resources and a low ecological surplus, and the eastern region where economy developed comparatively not well had a small demand for water resources and large ecological surplus.[Conclusion] The consumption of water resources in Guizhou Province was decreasing, the utilization efficiency was gradually improved. The development and utilization of water resources is in a safe state, and there is much room for the development and utilization, but the ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of water resources in 9 cities and counties of Guizhou Province were unevenly distributed, which needs to be reasonably allocated and utilized.
Key words:  the ecological print of water resources  the ecological capacity of water resources  ecological surplus  Guizhou Province