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喀斯特地区平水期水质污染综合分析——以贵州省白云岩喀斯特世界自然遗产地为例
张尘月, 刘子琦, 刘肇军, 李渊, 邢锴
贵州师范大学 喀斯特研究院/国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心, 贵州 贵阳 550001
摘要:
[目的]对贵州省施秉县的白云岩喀斯特遗产地的河流水质污染状况进行分析,以期掌握遗产地水质污染原因,更好地保护白云岩喀斯特遗产地的河流与环境。[方法]于2017年10月和2018年4月对遗产地境内黄洲河流域的8个代表性样点进行采样,对TP,TN,NH3-N,CODMn,DO,Chl-a等指标进行测定与分析,并运用单因素评价法、均值型指数综合评价法以及多元统计分析法分析评价。[结果]①遗产地缓冲区水质总体符合国家地表水Ⅲ类水标准,核心区水质部分不满足国家Ⅰ类水标准,主要污染物为总氮。②黄洲河流域春、秋季平水期水质状况相差不大,总体秋季较好,水体有较强的自净能力。③主要污染源为生活污水、固体垃圾以及农业面源污染。[结论]对施秉白云岩喀斯特遗产地进行环境保护和流域水质综合管理时应注意减少氮、磷肥料的长期大量使用,防止生活污水、生活垃圾的随意排放与丢弃。
关键词:  白云岩  遗产地  平水期  水质污染分析  多元统计分析
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.040
分类号:K903
基金项目:国家十三五重点研发计划课题“喀斯特高原山地石漠化综合治理与山地旅游产业技术与示范”(2016YFC0502606);贵州省地理学会向贵州师范大学委托项目;贵州省科技合作计划项目(黔科合LH字[2015]7775号)
Comprehensive Analysis of Water Pollution in Karst Areas During Nomal Water Season -Taking Dolomite Karst World Natural Heritage Site in Guizhou Province as an Example
Zhang Chenyue, Liu Ziqi, Liu Zhaojun, Li Yuan, Xing Kai
Guizhou Normal University Karst Research Institute, National Karst Rocky Desertification Control Engineering Technology Research Center, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Water quality pollution of the karst heritage site in Shibing County, Guizhou Province was studied in order to understand the causes of water pollution and to protect the river and environment of the karst heritage site.[Methods] In October 2017 and April 2018, the Huangzhou River basin in the heritage site sampling 8 representative samples of TP, TN, NH3-N, CODMn,DO, Chl-a and other indicators for the determination and analysis, and the use of single-factor evaluation method, The mean-value index comprehensive evaluation method and multivariate statistical analysis method were used.[Results] ① Heritage site buffer overall water quality meet the national surface water class Ⅲ of the water standard, the core part water quality does not meet the national class Ⅰ water standard, main pollutants for total nitrogen. ② The water quality of the Huangzhou River basin in spring and autumn has little difference, and the water quality is better in autumn as a whole, and the water body has a strong self-purification capacity. ③ The main pollution sources are domestic sewage, solid waste and agricultural surface source pollution.[Conclusion] The environmental protection and comprehensive management of watershed water quality in Shibing dolomite karst heritage site should be paid attention to, which are to reduce the long-term use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, to prevent the free discharge and discard of domestic sewage and domestic waste.
Key words:  dolomite  legacy area  horizontal period  analysis of water pollution  multivariate statistics