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人为干扰对西天山野果林群落结构和物种多样性的影响
方紫妍1, 李林瑜1, 艾克拜尔·毛拉1, 周龙1, 陆彪2
1.新疆农业大学 林学与园艺学院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052;2.新疆特克斯县林业局, 新疆 特克斯 835500
摘要:
[目的]探究人为干扰对西天山野果林群落结构和物种多样性的影响,为后期野果林的恢复、保护提供理论依据。[方法]以西天山野果林为研究对象,采用典型样地法,选择32个20 m×20 m具代表性的样地布置样方。以乔木径级结构、高度级结构及各层次物种组成和物种多样性指数作为评价指标,对比研究轻度(距离核心景区2~3 km)、中度(距离核心景区1~2 km)、重度(距离核心景区0~1 km)3种人为干扰强度下群落结构和物种多样性的变化。[结果]①从群落结构来看,轻度和中度干扰条件下乔木个体多分布在中径级(20 cm2的32个样地中,共记录到93个植物物种,隶属于40科84属;物种数随着人为干扰强度增加呈递减趋势,轻度、中度和重度干扰下群落的物种数依次为93种、69种和51种。Shannon-Wiener指数H值、均匀度指数J值随人为干扰强度的增加而降低,优势度指数H'值随人为干扰强度的增加而增加。[结论]重度人为干扰会普遍降低野果林群落的物种多样性水平,造成群落结构不稳定,不利于植被恢复和物种多样性保护。
关键词:  人为干扰  野果林  群落结构  物种多样性
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.02.042
分类号:S718.5
基金项目:国家科技部重点研发计划项目“天山北坡退化野果林生态保育与健康调控技术”(2016YFC0501501);新疆农业大学2612创新团队(XJAU201528);新疆维吾尔自治区园艺学重点学科项目(2016-10758-3)
Effects of Human Disturbance on Plant Diversity of Wild Fruit Forests in Western Tianshan Mountain
Fang Ziyan1, Li Linyu1, AI Kebai Er·Mao La1, Zhou Long1, Lu Biao2
1.College of Forestry and Horticulture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China;2.Forestry Bureau of Tekes County, Tekes, Xinjiang 835500, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of human disturbance on the community structure and species diversity of wild fruit forests in the Western Tianshan Mountains were studied in order to provided a theoretical basis for the restoration and protection of the wild fruit forests.[Methods] The present study investigated the effects of human disturbance on plant diversity of wild fruit forests in Western Tianshan Mountain based on the 32 representative plots with 20 m×20 m for each plot. The arbor diameter structure, the height structure, and the species composition and species diversity index of each forest layer were used as evaluation indexes. The effects of slight human disturbance(far from the core scenic area at 2~3 km), medium human disturbance(far from the core scenic area at 1~2 km) and severe human disturbance(far from the core scenic area at 0~1 km) on community structure and plant diversity of wild fruit forests were investigated.[Results] ① From the perspective of community structure, the individuals with arbor under mild and moderate disturbance were mostly distributed in the medium diameter class(20 cm < DBH ≤ 30 cm) and medium height class(5 m < tree height ≤ 8 m); individuals were mostly distributed in low diameter class(10 cm < DBH ≤ 15 cm), medium diameter class (20 cm < DBH ≤ 25 cm) and high height class(8 m < tree height ≤ 10 m), and their community structure and mildness. The community structure of the tree layer was significantly different from moderate disturbance. ② Among the 32 plots with a total area of 1.28 hm2, 93 plant species were recorded, belonging to 40 families and 84 genera; the number of species showed a decreasing trend with the increase of human disturbance intensity. The numbers of species in the community under mild, moderate and severe disturbances were:93 species, 69 species, and 51 species. The Shannon-Wiener index and the uniformity index J decreased with the increase of human disturbance intensity, and the dominance index H' increased with the increase of human disturbance intensity.[Conclusion] A severe human disturbance could reduce the plant diversity of the wild fruit forest community and result in an unstable community structure, which is not conducive to vegetation restoration and species diversity protection.
Key words:  human disturbance  wild fruit forests  community structure  species diversity