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湘西古丈烂泥田锰矿区地表水污染特征及风险评价
伍鹏, 舒倩, 罗小芳, 伍钢
湖南中诚环境监测技术有限公司, 湖南 长沙 410000
摘要:
[目的]研究古丈县烂泥田实施无尾矿库锰矿综合治理后地表水质量,以期掌握研究区地表水安全状况,为锰矿区重金属的污染治理提供依据。[方法]对采集水样的pH值,Mn,Pb,Hg,As,Cu,Cd,Cr6+,化学需氧量及氨氮含量进行测定。运用水质综合污染评价法与健康风险评价法对样品结果进行评价。[结果]①古丈烂泥田锰矿区地表水中仅S3(涵洞出口上游),S4(恒源矿业下游)与S5(烂泥田河流末端)号采样点的Mn含量超过《地表水环境质量标准》(GB 3838-2002)中Ⅲ类标准;②受张氏锰业外排废水的影响,各样点水环境综合污染指数大小顺序为:S3(涵洞出口上游) > S4(恒源矿业下游) > S5(烂泥田河流末端) > S1(锰矿渣库上游)>S2(涵洞出口);③S1—S5号采样点水环境总健康风险(RT)分别为7.73×10-6,1.19×10-5,4.23×10-5,2.64×10-5,2.40×10-5,均未超过国际辐射防护委员会(ICRP)的最大可接受风险水平(5.0×10-5)。[结论]水环境的总体健康风险主要来源于非致癌物质。减少水环境中的铅和铜,可以有效地控制饮用水带来的总体健康风险。从总体上看,古丈县烂泥田无尾锰矿实施一体化管理已达到目标,水环境质量基本达到标准。
关键词:  地表水  古丈烂泥田  水环境质量  锰矿区  健康风险
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.012
分类号:X820.4;X82;X131.2
基金项目:湖南省自然科学基金资助项目“加拿大一枝黄花的入侵机制及其生物防控研究”(2018JJ2182)。
Surface Water Pollution and Risk Assessment at a Manganese Mining Area Located in Mud Field in Guzhang County of Western Hu'nan Province
Wu Peng, Shu Qian, Luo Xiaofang, Wu Gang
Environmental Monitoring Technology Limited Company of Hu'nan Zhongcheng, Changsha, Hu'nan 410000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The surface water quality after the comprehensive treatment of tailless manganese ore at the mud field in Guzhang County in Hu'nan Province was studied in order to provide the basis for the pollution control of heavy metals in the study area.[Methods] The pH value, Mn, Pb, Hg, As, Cu, Cd, Cr6+, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4+-N in the samples were determined. The water environment quality was evaluated by comprehensive pollution assessment and health risk assessment methods.[Results] ① The Mn content from sampling points S3(upstream of culvert exit), S4(downstream of Hengyuan Mining) and S5(end of mud fiold river) exceeded the class Ⅲ standard of the Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002). ②As effected by the discharged wastewater from Zhang's manganese industry, the comprehensive pollution index of water environment ranged as S3(upstream of culvert exit) > S4(downstream of Hengyuan Mining) > S5(end of mud fiold river) > S1(upstream of manganese slag reservoir) > S2(culvert exit). ③The results of health risk assessment showed that the total health risks (RT) of the S1 to S5 sampling point were 7.73×10-6, 1.19×10-5, 4.23×10-5, 2.64×10-5, 2.40×10-5, respectively, all of which not exceeded the maximum acceptable risk level of International Commission on Radiological Protection(5.0×10-5).[Conclusion] The total health risk of water environment is mainly derived from non-carcinogenic substances. Reducing Pb and Cu in the water environment can effectively control the total health risks caused by drinking water. Overall, the implementation of the comprehensive management of the tailing-free manganese mine at mud field in Guzhang County has achieved the target, and the water environment quality has basically reached the standard.
Key words:  surface water  water environmental quality  manganese mining area  health risk