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水分胁迫对河西荒漠绿洲区酿酒葡萄水分利用及产量的跨年度影响
汪精海1,2, 张芮1, 李广2, 戴文渊3
1.甘肃农业大学 水利水电工程学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070;2.甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070;3.甘肃农业大学 资源与环境学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070
摘要:
[目的]研究滴灌条件下水分胁迫对酿酒葡萄耗水及产量的影响,为河西荒漠绿洲区酿酒葡萄节水高效灌溉模式的制定提供依据。[方法]在酿酒葡萄5个生育期分别设置轻度〔土壤含水率下限65% FC (田间持水率)〕和中度(土壤含水率下限55% FC)2种水分胁迫水平,以充分供水(下限75% FC)为对照;通过连续2 a (2015—2016年)定点大田试验,研究水分胁迫对酿酒葡萄耗水规律、产量、水分利用的影响规律。[结果]①酿酒葡萄5个生育期水分胁迫都会显著影响(减小)葡萄日耗水强度,且萌芽、新梢、开花期等短生育期胁迫对葡萄耗水的影响在复水后会自动消除,但果实膨大、着色成熟等2个长生育期水分胁迫的影响具有跨年度持续性,复水后难以短期内恢复。②萌芽期轻度水分胁迫处理的产量在2个试验年均达到最大,依次为14 868 kg/hm2和15 306 kg/hm2,该处理水分利用效率也同时达到最高,为2.77 kg/m3和2.96 kg/m3;着色成熟期轻度胁迫在不显著减产的基础上能提高水分利用效率;新梢生长期—果实膨大期中度水分胁迫都会显著降低酿酒葡萄产量,其中果实膨大期胁迫减产幅度最大,减幅可达39%~49%。[结论]水分胁迫时期和胁迫时长对酿酒葡萄耗水强度都有重要影响,生育后期长时间水分胁迫对酿酒葡萄耗水具有跨年度持续影响力;萌芽期或着色成熟期轻度胁迫,其他生育期充分供水是河西荒漠绿洲区酿酒葡萄较合理的节水高效灌溉模式。
关键词:  水分胁迫  酿酒葡萄  日耗水强度  水分利用效率  产量  河西荒漠绿洲区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.014
分类号:S152.7+5
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“水分调控对延迟栽培葡萄土壤碳源代谢及果实品质的协同作用机理”(51569002),“延迟栽培葡萄根际促生菌与土壤氮素转化对水分调控的协同响应机制”(51769001);甘肃科技计划重大专项资助项目“河西灌区酿酒葡萄水肥调质滴灌关键技术研究与示范”(1502NKDF023)
Effects of Water Deficit in Different Growth Periods on Water Consumption and Yield of Wine Grapes in Hexi Desert Oasis Region
Wang Jinghai1,2, Zhang Rui1, Li Guang2, Dai Wenyuan3
1.College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;2.College of Forestry, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China;3.College of Resources and Environment, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of water stress on water consumption and yield of wine grapes were studied in order to provide a scientific basis for water-saving and efficient irrigation of wine grapes in Hexi desert oasis region.[Methods] Two water stress levels of mild (65% field capacity, FC) and moderate (55% FC) were set in the five growth stages of wine grapes (germination, shoot growth, flowering, fruit enlargement and coloring mature stage), respectively, with the lowest limit of 75% FC as a control. The effects of water stress on water consumption intensity, yield and water use efficiency of wine grapes were studied from 2015 to 2016.[Results] ① Water stress at every growth stage of wine grapes significantly affected (reduced) the daily water consumption intensity of grapes, and the effect of water stress in short growth stage (such as germination, shoot growth, flowering stage) could be automatically eliminated after rehydration, while the effect of water stress in long growth period (fruit enlargement and coloring mature stage) was persistent across the year, and it was difficult to recover in a short time after rehydration. ② The yield of mild water stress at germination stage reached the maximum in the two experimental years, it was up to 14 868, 15 306 kg/hm2, respectively, and the water use efficiency also reached the highest (2.77, 2.96 kg/m3). The water use efficiency of mild water stress at coloring maturity stage could be improved without no obvious yield reduction. The moderate water stress at shoot growth, flowering and fruit expansion stage could significantly reduce grapes yield, and the reduction rate reached to 39%~49% under water stress at fruit expansion stage.[Conclusion] The growth period and duration of water stress have important effects on water consumption intensity of grapes. Long-term water stress have a continuous effect on water consumption of wine grapes across the year. Mild water stress at germination or coloring maturity stage, and adequate water supply at other growth stages are the efficient irrigation modes for wine grapes in Hexi desert oasis region.
Key words:  water deficit  wine grapes  daily water consumption rate  water use efficiency  yield  Hexi desert oasis region