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铁路高立式芦苇沙障防风阻沙的现场测试与流场模拟计算
丁录胜1, 程建军2, 陈柏羽2, 葛云3, 丁泊淞2
1.中铁一院新疆铁道勘察设计院有限公司, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011;2.石河子大学 水利建筑工程学院, 新疆 石河子 832003;3.石河子大学 机械电气工程学院, 新疆 石河子 832003
摘要:
[目的]调查在建库格铁路沿线布设的高立式芦苇沙障的阻沙与防风效果,判断高立式芦苇沙障能否满足防风阻沙的工程需要,为风沙灾害防治提供相关的科学依据。[方法]在沿线试验段进行了高立式芦苇沙障的阻沙率测试与梯度风监测,并采用数值模拟计算手段深入分析了高立式芦苇沙障的流场分布特征以及阻沙控沙规律。[结果]①现场测试发现单道芦苇沙障的阻沙率为93.85%,铁路沿线通常设置多道阻沙沙障,风沙流经过多道阻沙沙障后,基本被净化。②在单道芦苇沙障的作用下,风沙流在其周围的速度分布明显,沙障后形成的减速区较为均匀且没有涡流区的出现;芦苇沙障芦苇束的透隙率为36.5%,对风沙流的削弱影响区主要分布在沙障前3.5HH=200 cm)和沙障后17H水平距离范围内,对来流的平均削弱程度为29.7%,最大值为48%。③当风速超过沙粒起动风速后,风沙颗粒主要分布在芦苇沙障前0.2H范围内,风沙流经过沙障后沙通量急剧降低。[结论]通过现场试验及数值模拟,揭示了高立式芦苇沙障的阻沙控沙规律。高立式芦苇沙障具有类似网式沙障的优良控沙能力,可在铁路沿线进行推广使用。
关键词:  现场测试  数值计算  芦苇沙障  阻沙率  控风特征
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.026
分类号:U216.41+3
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“铁路沿线网(孔板)式沙障风沙流场测试及其支撑体系受力特征研究”(51641808),“铁路沿线沙障与风沙流场互馈机制及防沙工程系统控沙原理研究”(51568057),“新疆戈壁、荒漠强风区铁路沿线积沙分布迁移规律及挡风沙构筑物优化设计与合理组配模式研究”,(50908152)“戈壁近地表强风携沙砾运动的力学特性研究”(51268050)
Field Test and Numerical Simulation of Windbreak and Sand-resisting on High-parallel Reed Sand-barriers Along Railway
Ding Lusheng1, Cheng Jianjun2, Chen Boyu2, Ge Yun3, Ding Bosong2
1.Xinjiang Railway Survey and Design Institute Co. Ltd, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China;2.College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003, China;3.College of Mechanical and Electric Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The sand blocking and windproof effects of high-parallel reed sand-barriers along the Korla-Golmud railway were investigated, and whether the high-parallel reed sand barrier can meet the engineering needs of wind and sand resistance was judged, in order to provide a scientific basis for sand-wind disaster prevention.[Methods] The sand blocking rate test and gradient wind monitoring of the high-parallel reed sand-barriers were conducted in the test section along the line. Numerical simulation calculations were used to analyze the flow field distribution characteristics and sand control laws of high-parallel reed sand-barriers.[Results] ① The sand-blocking rate of single-channel reed sand barrier was 93.85%. Multiple sand barriers were usually set along the railway line. The sand flow was basically cleared after passing through multiple sand barriers. ② Under the action of single reed sand barrier, the velocity distribution around the barrier was obvious, and the deceleration zone formed behind the barrier was more uniform and there was no eddy current zone. The porosity of reed sand barrier was 36.5%.The weakening impact zone of the reed sand barrier on the inflow was mainly within the range of 3.5H(H=200 cm) before the barrier and 17H after the barrier. The mean weakening capacity for the incoming flow was 29.7% and the maximum value was 48%. ③ When the wind speed exceed 6 m/s, the sand particles were mainly distributed within the 0.2H range before the reed sand barrier, and the sand flux decreased sharply after the sand flow passed through the sand barrier.[Conclusion] Through the field experiment and numerical simulation, the law of sand control of high-parallel reed sand-barrier is revealed. The high-parallel reed sand-barrier has excellent sand control capacity similar to the net sand barrier and can be used along the railway.
Key words:  field test  numerical calculation  reed sand barrier  sand blocking rate  wind control characteristics