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泰国土地发展部顾问Chinapatana Sukvibool先生论东南亚森林植被变化与土壤侵蚀管理
作者单位
摘要:
[目的]回顾和总结近年来东南亚地区森林植被变化与水土流失演变领域研究项目的成果,并探讨东南亚地区改良后的保育措施在流域尺度水土流失与产沙管理方面的成效。[方法]根据东南亚各国不同时空尺度的数据,分析了该区森林植被的变化及采取的对策。选择泰国实施流域管理的地区为研究区,阐述了被动和主动侵蚀控制策略的有效性和实用性。[结果]①在2000—2005年期间,东南亚地区的森林面积大幅减少,累计年度森林砍伐率达到2.76×106 hm2。然而,由于森林种植园的建立,该区森林覆盖率近期已经增加。②东南亚雾霾是一种定期发生的大范围空气污染问题,它在很大程度上起因于农业上的非法放火烧荒。③东南亚地区土壤侵蚀管理措施包括带状种植、等高耕作、条状种植、草障、保护性耕作、免耕种植和植物篱间作。尽管在小区尺度上,保护措施在减少径流方面发挥了良好的作用,但对大尺度而言,其作用还有待进一步的研究和验证。水土保持对产量的潜在影响可能是影响水土保持投资价值的一个关键因素。[结论]东南亚地区森林覆盖变化的挑战既真实又迫切。我们应该建立区域防控机制减少森林火灾和雾霾,并通过保持一个可持续的林业,维护陆地生物多样性减少土壤侵蚀。为低收入小户型农民选择适当的水土保持方法,对于降低水土流失速度和提高作物产量至关重要。
关键词:  森林植被  土壤侵蚀与保持  雾霾污染  东南亚
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.03.049
分类号:S157;X171.4
基金项目:
Change of Forest Vegetation and Management of Soil Erosion in Southeast Asia—Commented by Chinapatana Sukvibool, An Adviser of the Land Development Department, Thailand
Abstract:
[Objective] The objectives of this paper were to review and synthesizes the research programs which were conducted in the field of change of forest vegetation and the evolution of soil erosion in Southeast Asia, and to discuss the effectiveness of improved conservation practices on managing soil erosion and sediment yield at catchment scale.[Methods] The forest vegetation change countermeasures at different spatial and temporal scales were analyzed according to data from countries in Southeast Asia. This paper focused on an extensive range of methodologies at different spatial and temporal scales. The research area was the region selected for the implementation of watershed management in Thailand. The efficacy and practicality of passive and active erosion control strategies were expounded.[Results] ① Forest loss in Southeast Asia had remained at high levels during the period from 2000 to 2005, accumulating to an annual deforestation rate of about 2.76×106 ha. However, forest cover has increased in the recent years due to the establishment of forest plantations. ② Southeast Asian haze was a large-scale air pollution problem that occurs regularly. The haze was largely caused by illegal agricultural fires. ③ Soil erosion control strategies for manage soil erosion in Southeast Asia include alley cropping, contouring, strip cropping, grass barriers, conservation tillage, minimum tillage and hedgerow inter-cropping. Despite the role of conservation practices being well established in reducing water runoff at the plot scale, extrapolation to a large scale, it has been less understood and verified. The potential impact of soil conservation on yield may be a key factor that affects the value of soil conservation investments.[Conclusion] The challenge of forest vegetation change in Southeast Asia is real and urgent. Regional prevention and control mechanisms should be constructed to decrease forest fire and haze. To decrease soil erosion, we should keep a sustainable forestry and sustain terrestrial biodiversity. Selection of appropriate soil conservation methods for low income smallholder farmers is critical to reduce the rate of soil erosion as well as to increase crop productivity.
Key words:  forest vegetation  soil erosion and conservation  haze pollution  Southeast Asia