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东北地区自然植被火动态特征及其对干旱的响应
于成龙1,2,3, 刘丹1,2,3, 何锋1,2,3, 韩俊杰1,2,3
1.中国气象局 东北地区生态气象创新开放实验室, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030;2.黑龙江省气象院士工作站, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030;3.黑龙江省气象科学研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150030
摘要:
[目的]研究2002-2017年东北地区自然植被火的发生发展及其对干旱的响应规律,从而为区域火管理、火险等级预报和森林资源保护提供科学依据。[方法]基于MODIS公开的数据产品和改进帕默尔干旱指数(scPDSI),采用统计学方法,分别季节和年际尺度,分析东北地区自然植被火动态特征,探寻其对干湿状况的响应规律。[结果]①在季节尺度上,春季和秋季是森林和草地火的多发期,草地火次数在春季和秋季呈显著增加趋势;②在年际尺度上,森林火次数以18次/a的速度呈显著下降趋势,平均过火面积呈弱上升趋势,草地火次数以36次/a的速度呈极显著上升趋势,平均过火面积呈弱下降趋势;③火次数和过火面积分别与scPDSI呈线性负相关与指数负相关;④随着干旱程度的加深,森林和草地火的平均次数和平均单次过火面积都有增加的趋势。[结论]干旱可能会增加东北地区自然植被的起火次数和单次过火面积。
关键词:  干旱    东北地区  改进帕默尔干旱指数(scPDSI)
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.002
分类号:S762
基金项目:黑龙江省自然科学基金联合引导项目"生态文明建设气象条件贡献率评价研究"(LH2019D014);中国气象局东北地区生态气象创新开放实验室开放基金项目(stqx2018zd03);中国气象局沈阳大气环境研究所开放基金项目(2018SYIAEZD1)
Dynamic Characteristics of Natural Vegetation Fires and Their Response to Drought in Northeast China
Yu Chenglong1,2,3, Liu Dan1,2,3, He Feng1,2,3, Han Junjie1,2,3
1.Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Regional Eco-meteorology in Northeast China, China Meteorological Administration, Harbin, Heilongjaing 150030, China;2.Meteorological Academician Workstation of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, Heilongjaing 150030, China;3.Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjaing 150030, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The development law of natural vegetation fires and their response to drought in Northeast China during 2002-2017 was studied, so as to provide scientific basis for regional fire management, fire risk level prediction and forest resources protection.[Methods] Based on the published available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) satellite products and the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index(scPDSI)data, the seasonal and interannual characteristics of fire dynamics of natural vegetation in Northeast China were analyzed by using statistical methods, and the response law of fire dynamics to dry-wet conditions was explored.[Results] On seasonal scale, most forest and grassland fires occurred in spring and autumn, and grassland fire occurrence increased significantly in these two seasons. On inter-annual scale, forest fire occurrence decreased significantly at the rate of 18 times per year and their average burnt area increased faintly. Grassland fire occurrence showed an extremely significant upward trend at the rate of 36 times per year, and their average burnt area decreased faintly. There were linear and negative correlations between fire occurrence and scPDSI. But burnt area appeared exponential and negative correlations with scPDSI. Both average fire occurrence and average burnt area per individual fire showed an increasing trend with the deepening of drought.[Conclusion] Fire occurrence and burnt area per individual fire of natural vegetation could be increased under the condition of drought.
Key words:  drought  fire  Northeast China  the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index(scPDSI)