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黄河三角洲盐碱地衰退林分的更替改造模式
乔艳辉1, 王月海1, 姜福成2, 夏江宝3
1.山东省林业科学研究院, 山东 济南 250014;2.济南军区黄河三角洲综合训练基地, 山东 东营 257231;3.滨州学院 山东省黄河三角洲生态环境重点实验室, 山东 滨州 256603
摘要:
[目的]探索最优的林分更替改造模式,为黄河三角洲盐碱地退化林分的恢复提供理论依据和技术支撑。[方法]以黄河三角洲盐碱地衰退白榆林和八里庄杨树林为研究对象,采用野外调查与实验室分析测定相结合的方法,对两种衰退林分及各自不同更替改造模式的生长、土壤及植被效益进行分析与评价。[结果]①衰退白榆林和八里庄杨林更替改造的不同模式在郁闭度、林木保存率和生长状况方面差异较大,总体上混交林好于纯林,耐盐能力强的树种好于耐盐能力差的树种。②衰退白榆林和八里庄杨林的不同更替改造模式在土壤理化性能上皆得到提高,均能提升土壤涵蓄降水量和有效涵蓄量;不同更替改造模式均不同程度地降低了土壤的pH值和含盐量;两种衰退林分经更替改造为不同模式后的土壤有机质和养分状况得到较大改善,随着林分模式的不同,其提高程度差异较大。③不同林分模式的植被有所差异,但总体来说,更替改造模式的生境好于衰退林分,出现耐盐能力较低的植物,其植被种类增多,但随着林分郁闭度的增加,耐荫植物出现,耐干旱耐盐植物种类减少。[结论]综合分析两种衰退林分更替改造不同模式的林分生长、土壤及植被,在衰退白榆林分的更替改造中,以竹柳刺槐白榆混交林模式为最佳,白榆纯林次之,刺槐纯林亦可考虑,竹柳纯林模式则不宜选择;在衰退八里庄杨林分更替改造的两种模式中,白榆纯林为最好,盐柳纯林最差,不宜选用。
关键词:  黄河三角洲  盐碱地  衰退林  更替改造模式
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.017
分类号:S756.9
基金项目:山东省林业科技创新项目"滨海盐碱地退化防护林提质增效关键技术研究与示范"(LYCX07-2018-38);山东省重点研发计划项目"黄河三角洲盐碱地低效防护林恢复及重建关键技术研究"(2017GSF17115)
Replacement and Transformation Modes of Degraded Forest Stand in Saline Land of Yellow River Delta
Qiao Yanhui1, Wang Yuehai1, Jiang Fucheng2, Xia Jiangbao3
1.Shandong Academy of Forestry, Ji'nan, Shandong 250014, China;2.Combined Training Base of Ji'nan Military Area Command, Dongying, Shandong 257231, China;3.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Eco-environmental Science for Yellow River Delta, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong 256603, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The optimal replacement and transformation modes were analyzed and evaluated in order to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the restoration of degraded forest stand in saline land of the Yellow River delta.[Methods] Two kinds of forest stand in the Yellow River delta saline land degraded Ulmus pumila and Populus×xiaozhuanica were selected as the research objects. The growth, soil and vegetation benefits of the two degraded stands and their different replacement and transformation modes were studied by using the methods of field investigation and laboratory analysis and measurement.[Results] ① There were great differences in canopy density and forest preservation rate between the replacement and transformation modes of the degraded U. pumila and P.×xiaozhuanica, but mixed forest was better than pure forest on the whole, and the species with strong salt tolerance were better than those with poor salt tolerance. ② The different replacement and transformation modes of the decaying U. pumila forest and P.×xiaozhuanica forest had been improved in soil physicochemical properties, and both of them could improve soil conservation and effective conservation. The pH value and salinity of the soil were decreased by different alternation modes. The soil organic matter and nutrient status of the two degraded stands were improved greatly after being replaced and transformed into different modes. ③ The vegetation of different stands was different, but in general, the habitat of the replacement and transformation mode was better than that of the degraded forest stands, and the plants with low salt tolerance appeared, and the vegetation types increased, but with the increase of stand canopy density, shade plants appeared, and the drought and salt tolerant plant species decreased.[Conclusion] Based on the analysis of forest stand growth, soil and vegetation of two different modes of forest stand replacement and transformation in the two degraded forest stands, in the replacement and transformation of degraded U. pumila stands, the mixed forest mode of Salix americana and Robinia pseudoacacia and U. pumila was the best, followed by pure forest of U. pumila and pure forest of Robinia pseudoacacia, while the pure forest mode of S. americana was not suitable. Among the two modes of replacement and transformation of P.×xiaozhuanica degraded forest, U. pumila forest was the best, S. cheilophila pure forest was the worst.
Key words:  Yellow River delta  saline land  degraded forest  replacement and transformation mode