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基于小区实测数据的不同类型土壤可蚀性因子计算
杨欣1, 郭乾坤2,3, 王爱娟4, 刘宝元1, 张蒙娜1, 常琪琪1
1.北京师范大学 地理科学学部, 北京 100875;2.中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100048;3.水利部水土保持生态工程技术研究中心, 北京 100048;4.水利部水土保持监测中心, 北京 100055
摘要:
[目的]对不同类型土壤可蚀性因子进行计算,为土壤侵蚀定量评价、水土流失动态监测提供科学依据。[方法]通过收集全国范围野外径流小区实测资料,采用一定的数据遴选标准,利用小区法计算我国主要土壤的K值;同时考虑实测值评价Wischmeier和EPIC K值估算公式在我国的适用性。[结果]我国主要土壤的K值范围分布在0.0008~0.0705(t·hm2·h)/(hm2·MJ·mm)之间。黑土、黄绵土和褐土的K值较大,红壤和紫色土因子值较小。全国范围内,公式估算得到的K值与实测值存在较大误差;修订后的Wischmeier公式估算东北黑土区K值精度相对较高。[结论]基于全国实测站点数据和文献数据,计算出修正到标准小区的K值,K值空间变化幅度较大,大体呈现出从北向南减小的趋势。为获得比较准确的K值,建立相关经验公式需进一步加强监测点管理和长序列观测数据的积累。
关键词:  土壤可蚀性因子  观测数据  裸地小区  农地小区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.018
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"生态治理与生态文明建设生态技术筛选、配置与试验示范"(2016YFC0503705);水利部财政预算项目"全国水土流失动态监测项目"(126216229000150001)
Calculation of Soil Erodibility Factor Under Different Soil Types Based on Runoff Plot Data
Yang Xin1, Guo Qiankun2,3, Wang Aijuan4, Liu Baoyuan1, Zhang Mengna1, Chang Qiqi1
1.Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;2.China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100048, China;3.Research Center on Soil and Water Conservation of MWR, Beijing 100048, China;4.Center of Soil and Water Conservation Monitoring, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100055, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The erodibility factors of different soil types were calculated in order to provide scientific basis for quantitative evaluation of soil erosion and dynamic monitoring of soil erosion.[Methods] By collecting data from runoff plots in the whole country and using the data selection criteria. The K factor value of the main kinds of soil in China was calculated by plot data and evaluated the applicability of the Wischmeier's and the EPIC model in the country.[Results] The K value of the main kinds of soil in China ranged from 0.000 8 to 0.070 5(t·hm2·h)/(hm2·MJ·mm). The K value of black soil, cultivated loessial soil and cinnamon soil were higher, while it was lower in the red earths and purple soil. In the whole country, there was a large deviation between the K factor values estimated by the models and the observed data, but the revised empirical model could be used properly in the black soil region of Northeast China.[Conclusion] The K value correcting to the unit runoff plot was calculated based on the data of the runoff plots and references throughout the country. The K value varied greatly over space, it showed that there had a decreasing tendency from the north to the south. In order to obtain a more accurate K value and establish relevant empirical formulas, it was necessary to further strengthen the monitoring points management and the accumulation of long-term observation data.
Key words:  soil erodibility factor  surveying data  bare plot  farm land plot