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接坝山区陡坡地段阔叶林改造对水文生态环境的影响
塔莉1, 梁文俊2
1.河北环境工程学院 生态学系, 河北 秦皇岛 066102;2.山西农业大学, 山西 太谷 030800
摘要:
[目的]研究接坝山区陡坡地段引针入阔进行阔叶林改造以后对水文生态环境的影响,为该区造林与改善水文生态环境提供一定的科学依据。[方法]以研究区3种典型植被类型作为研究对象,采用室内浸泡法、环刀法分别对枯落物层与土壤层水文生态效应进行定量测定。[结果]①枯落物蓄积量依次为:油松-山杏混交林 > 山杏林 > 绣线菊灌丛;有效拦蓄量依次为:油松-山杏混交林 > 山杏林 > 绣线菊灌丛;枯落物持水量、枯落物持水速率与浸水时间存在较好的函数关系。②3种植被类型有效持水量依次为:油松-山杏混交林(69.00 t/hm2) > 山杏林(60.87 t/hm2) > 绣线菊灌丛(55.60 t/hm2);3种植被类型中油松-山杏混交林初渗速率最大为29.78 mm/min,绣线菊灌丛初渗速率最小为22.38 mm/min;3种植被类型土壤入渗速率与入渗时间存在较好的幂函数关系(R2>0.97)。[结论]3种不同植被类型中油松-山杏混交林水源涵养功能最强,而绣线菊灌丛水源涵养能力最差,说明在陡坡地段进行阔叶林改造在一定程度上增强了林分水源涵养能力,改善了林分水文生态环境,因此从增强涵养水源的角度出发,建议在该地区灌木林与阔叶林中引入适当密度油松,从而改善该地区水文生态环境。
关键词:  陡坡地段  引针入阔  植被类型  水文生态
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2019.04.026
分类号:S714.7;S715
基金项目:河北省林业和草原局项目"基于ArcGIS应用对木兰围场接坝山区陡坡地段立体植被构造技术研究"(1903003);国家自然科学基金项目"基于森林空间结构的华北落叶松人工林种子萌发及幼苗成活机制研究"(31500523)
Effects of Broad-leaved Forest Transformation on Hydrological and Ecological Environment in Steep Slope Section of Dam Area
Ta Li1, Liang Wenjun2
1.Department of Ecology, Hebei University of Environmental Engineering, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066102, China;2.Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030800, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects on the hydrological and ecological environment, after the needle-leaved trees inserted into the the broad-leaved forests at steep slope of the dam area, were studied in order to provide a scientific basis for afforestation and improvement of hydrological and ecological environment.[Methods] Three typical vegetation types in the study area were used as research objects, and the hydrological and ecological effects of litter layer and soil layer were quantitatively determined by indoor immersion method and ring knife method.[Results] ① The accumulation of litter was in the order of Pinus tabuliformis-Apricot mixed forest > Mountain apricot forest > Spiraea shrub; the effective storage capacity was in the order of Pinus tabuliformis-Apricot mixed forest > Mountain apricot forest > Spiraea shrub. There was a good functional relationship between the water holding capacity of litter and the water holding rate of litter and the water immersion time. ② The effective water holding capacity of the 3 planting types was Pinus tabuliformis-Apricot mixed forest (69.00 t/hm2)>Mountain apricot forest (60.87 t/hm2)>Spiraea shrub (55.60 t/hm2); The initial infiltration rate of Pinus tabuliformis-Apricot mixed forest was 29.78 mm/min, and the minimum infiltration rate of Spiraea shrub was 22.38 mm/min. The infiltration rate and infiltration time of three planting types had better power(R2>0.97).[Conclusion] Combining the water holding capacity of the litter layer and the soil layer, it could be seen that the water conservation function of the Pinus tabuliformis-Apricot mixed forest was the strongest among the three different vegetation types, while the water conservation capacity of the Spiraea shrub was the worst. It indicated that broad-leaved forest transformation had enhanced the water conservation capacity of forests and improved the hydrological and ecological environment of forests in the steep slope area. Therefore, from the perspective of enhancing water conservation, it was recommended to introduce appropriate density of Pinus tabuliformis in shrubs and broad-leaved forests in the area to improve the hydrological ecological environment of the area.
Key words:  steep slope section  needle-leaved trees insertied into broad-leaved forests  vegetation type  hydrological ecology