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苦驴河上游小流域土壤侵蚀及其养分流失特征
邓威1, 汪晶晶1, 白云1, 李玉成1, 叶寅2, 张学胜1
1.安徽大学 资源与环境工程学院, 安徽 合肥 230601;2.安徽省农业科学院 土壤肥料研究所, 安徽 合肥 230001
摘要:
[目的] 定量分析苦驴河上游小流域土壤侵蚀及其养分流失特征,为巢湖上游小流域水土保持工作提供科学依据。[方法] 基于遥感技术(RS)和地理信息系统(GIS),利用修正通用土壤流失方程(RUSLE)定量评估研究区土壤侵蚀及其养分流失状况,分析土壤侵蚀强度与坡度、高程和土地利用等因子的关系。[结果] ①2018年研究区平均土壤侵蚀模数为394.45 t/(km2·a),主要为微度和轻度侵蚀。②土壤侵蚀强度与坡度呈明显的正相关,且随着坡度增加,强度及以上侵蚀的面积比例逐渐增加。同一高程范围内不同土地利用对土壤侵蚀程度影响不同,以各土地利用的平均土壤侵蚀模数表示为:未利用地[1 022.55 t/(km2·a)] > 林地[655.04 t/(km2·a)] > 旱地[285.78 t/(km2·a)] > 水田[139.80 t/(km2·a)]。③土壤养分流失与土壤侵蚀的空间分布趋势一致,土壤有机碳(SOC)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)平均流失量分别为3.66,0.27,0.07 t/(km2·a)。[结论] 苦驴河上游小流域土壤侵蚀及其养分流失受地形地貌影响显著,南高北低,南部丘陵水土流失较为严重,山林地和坡耕地是该地区水土保持工作的重点区域。
关键词:  RUSLE  土壤侵蚀  土壤养分流失  苦驴河上游小流域
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.013
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家科技重大专项"派河小流域山林地水源涵养技术筛选验证与应用推广"(2017ZX07603-002-001)
Characteristics of Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss in Small Watershed on Upper Reaches of Kulü River
Deng Wei1, Wang Jingjing1, Bai Yun1, Li Yucheng1, Ye Yin2, Zhang Xuesheng1
1.School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230601, China;2.Soil Fertilizer Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230001, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The characteristics of soil erosion and nutrient loss in a small watershed on the upper reaches of the Kulü River were quantitatively analyzed to provide a scientific basis for soil and water conservation in small watersheds on the upper reaches of Chaohu Lake.[Methods] A remote sensing system (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) were used to assess quantitatively the soil erosion and nutrient loss in the research area using the revised universal soil equation (RUSLE). The relationships between soil erosion intensity and factors such as slope, elevation, and land use types were also analyzed.[Results] ① The average soil erosion modulus in the research area in 2018 was 394.45 t/(km2·a), the intensity of soil erosion was mainly at micro or mild level. ② The intensity of soil erosion was positively correlated with the slope gradient, and with increase of the slope gradient, the proportion of erosion area that was intensely eroded increased gradually. Within the same range of elevation, different land use types had different impacts on soil erosion. The average soil erosion modulus of each land use type was unused land[1 022.55 t/(km2·a)] > forest land[655.04 t/(km2·a)] > dry land[285.78 t/(km2·a)] > paddy field[139.80 t/(km2·a)]. ③ The trend of the spatial distribution of soil nutrient loss was consistent with that of soil erosion. The average losses of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 3.66, 0.27, and 0.07 t/(km2·a), respectively.[Conclusion] The distribution characteristics (high to the south and low to the north) of soil erosion and nutrient loss at the small watershed on the upper reaches of Kulü River are significantly affected by topography and geomorphology. Soil and water loss are the most serious in hilly areas. In the research area, mountain forest land and sloped farmland are the key areas for soil and water conservation.
Key words:  RUSLE  soil erosion  soil nutrient loss  the small watershed on the upper reaches of Kulü River