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中国第二次土地调查以来省域耕地利用时空变化
赵育恒1,2, 谭永忠1,2
1.浙江大学 公共管理学院 土地管理系, 浙江 杭州 310058;2.浙江大学 土地与国家发展研究院, 浙江 杭州 310058
摘要:
[目的] 分析和研究全国第二次土地调查(简称"二调")以来各省级空间地域单元的耕地利用现势分布和省域耕地利用的时空特征,以期寻求促进耕地资源可持续利用的针对性政策改进措施。[方法] 基于2009-2016年全国和省级年度土地利用现状数据,利用GIS空间分析、数学指数模型等方法进行研究。[结果] ①2009-2016年间中国耕地面积总体呈减少趋势,其中旱地减少面积多于水田、水浇地增加面积,耕地总面积共减少4.64×105 hm2,但基于各省域间资源禀赋的异质性和社会经济发展差异,耕地面积分布与利用呈现出明显的差异性。②受不同阶段耕地保护政策的影响,耕地面积在时间和空间不同维度上均或多或少受政策调控,这是形成耕地利用时空变化格局的重要原因。③中国的耕地保护政策需要在耕地利用的时空变化分析基础上进一步加以科学优化,并积极引导区域耕地利用与资源环境协调发展。[结论] 现阶段耕地资源利用具有较强的空间、时间异质性和动态变动性特征,而全国省域耕地利用变化过程受到全局性和区域性政策演进与人类活动定向干预的双重作用,亟需在及时跟进和把控耕地变化特征差异的基础上,通过适时合理的政策调控实现对省域耕地资源差异化保护和利用,以保障粮食安全和协调资源匹配,促进区域可持续发展。
关键词:  土地资源  耕地保护  时空特征  耕地利用变化  全国第二次土地调查
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.01.030
分类号:F301.2
基金项目:教育部人文社会科学研究项目"重金属污染耕地区农户参与治理式休耕的行为机理与激励机制研究"(19YJA630065)
Spatial-temporal Changes of Cultivated Land Use at Provincial Level Since Second National Land Survey in China
Zhao Yuheng1,2, Tan Yongzhong1,2
1.Department of Land Resources, School of Public Affairs, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China;2.Land Academy for National Development, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The spatial distribution and the spatial-temporal changes of cultivated land use characheritics were analyzed at provincial level since the second national land survey in China. The aim was to promote sustainable use of cultivated land, to make specific adjustments on the improvement measures.[Methods] A spatial GIS method, an index model and other scientific methods were applied to the data on the national and provincial annual land-use from 2009 to 2016.[Results] ① The total area of cultivated land in China decreased during the period from 2009 to 2016. The decrease of area in dry land was higher than the increase of that in paddy fields and irrigated land and the total area of cultivated land decreased by 4.64×105 hm2. The distribution and utilization of cultivated land areas varied with the difference in resource funding and socio-economic development in the provinces. ② Spatial and temporal policies on cultivated land protection largely contributed to temporal and spatial changes in cultivated land use. ③ The current cultivated land protection policy needed to be optimized based on scientific data and the analysis of the temporal and spatial changes in the use of cultivated land in China. The policy was needed to manage the development of regional cultivated land use and the environment.[Conclusion] The current cultivated land resources have substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity and dynamic features. The change of cultivated land at the provincial level in China is affected by the evolution of global and regional policies and human intervention. It is necessary to implement appropriate and reasonable policy regulations taking into account the differences in the development of cultivated land use at the provincial level to accomplish the protection and utilization of cultivated land. Proper regulations will ensure food security, coordinate resource matching, and promote regional sustainable development.
Key words:  land resource  cultivated land protection  spatial-temporal characteristics  cultivated land use change  the second national land survey