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阿克苏河中游荒漠河岸林物种多样性与群落稳定性
史浩伯1, 孙桂丽1,2, 王桂华3, 陈亚宁4, 李卫红4, 李路1
1.新疆农业大学 林学与园艺学院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830000;2.干旱区林业生态与产业技术重点实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052;3.内蒙古农业大学 沙漠治理学院 沙地(沙漠)生态系统与生态工程重点实验室, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018;4.中国科学院 新疆生态与地理研究所 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830000
摘要:
[目的] 探究阿克苏河中游荒漠河岸林群落的物种多样性、稳定性及其之间的关系,在物种水平上对当前群落植物组成的复杂性及部分环境因子的关系进行探讨,为荒漠河岸生态系统的恢复提供理论依据。[方法] 在样方调查的基础上,运用格局分析法,物种多样性指数与均匀度指数,聚类分析以及M.Godron稳定性测度对植物群落进行综合评估。[结果] 阿克苏河中游荒漠河岸林主要的植物种群均呈现聚集分布的格局,群落结构简单,具有单寡种优势群落的特征。不同地段的植物群落物种分布较为均匀,但丰富度与多样性的高低略有起伏;荒漠河岸林植物群落根据环境因子的聚类结果可分为6个群丛,其中有3个群丛的物种多样性较低。物种组成与土壤水分的关联较为密切;当前植物群落尚未达到稳定阶段,物种多样性与群落稳定性者之间并无任何直接联系。[结论] 单一以河水漫灌的方式促进该地区植物多样性的恢复具有一定的困难,考虑以胡杨、柽柳为主要格局,种植深根系的乔灌木以营造局部地区小气候,间接优化生境的方式对荒漠河岸林的植被恢复更为有利。
关键词:  物种多样性  群落稳定性  荒漠河岸林  阿克苏河
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.002
分类号:Q948
基金项目:国家林业局软科学项目"丝绸之路经济带核心区生态保护与建设"(2016-R25-1);国家自然科学基金项目(41861046;41361093);中国科学院科技服务网络计划(STS计划)课题(KFJ-STS-ZDTP-036)
Species Diversity and Community Stability of Desert Riparian Forests in Middle Reaches of Aksu River
Shi Haobo1, Sun Guili1,2, Wang Guihua3, Chen Yaning4, Li Weihong4, Li lu1
1.College of Forestry and Horticulture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China;2.Key Laboratory of Forestry Ecology and Industrial Technology in Arid Area, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China;3.College of Desert Governance, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Sandland(Desert) Ecosystem and Ecological Engineering, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China;4.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The diversity and stability of the desert riparian forest community in the middle reaches of the Aksu River were studied to explore the complexity of the current community plant composition and the relationship between some environmental factors at the species level, aiming at provide theoretical support for the desert riparian ecosystem restoration.[Methods] Based on the sample survey, the plant community was comprehensively evaluated by pattern analysis method, species diversity index and evenness index, cluster analysis and M.Godron stability measure.[Results] The main plant populations of desert riparian forests in the middle reaches of the Aksu River showed an aggregated distribution pattern, and the community structure was simple, which characterized with single oligo-dominant communities. The species distribution of plant communities was relatively uniform across different locations, but the richness and diversity changed up and down; the desert riparian forest communities could be divided into six categories according to environmental factors, and the plant diversity of three types of plots was low. The specie composition was closely related to soil moisture, and the plant community species diversity was negatively correlated with soil moisture. The higher the water content, the more uniform the plant composition; the current plant community has not reached the stable stage, and there was no direct connection between plant diversity and community stability.[Conclusion] It is difficult to promote the restoration of plant diversity in the region by flood irrigation. Considering Populus euphratica and Tamarix chinensis as the main patterns, planting deep-rooted trees and shrubs to create a local microclimate, and indirectly improving habitats are the better ways for vegetation restoration in desert riparian forests.
Key words:  species diversity  community stability  desert riparian forest  Aksu River