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喀斯特石漠化及土地利用变化的地貌分异特征——以贵州省关岭贞丰花江石漠化综合示范区为例
尹林江1,2, 周忠发1,2, 朱昌丽1,2, 尚梦佳1,2
1.贵州师范大学 喀斯特研究院/地理与环境科学学院, 贵州 贵阳 550001;2.国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心, 贵州 贵阳 550001
摘要:
[目的] 探讨石漠化地区土地利用变化的地貌分异特征,揭示不同地貌条件下的土地利用时空变化的特征和规律,为石漠化地区土地的合理利用提供科学参照。[方法] 以贵州省关岭贞丰花江石漠化综合示范区为例,运用GIS和RS技术,基于2005,2010和2013年3个时期的土地利用数据、石漠化数据和地貌数据,运用地形分布指数、土地利用程度综合指数,对研究区土地利用变化的地貌分异进行研究。[结果] ①在2005-2013年间,喀斯特地区草地、建设用地、林地、未利用地和水域的面积有所增加,耕地、园地的面积在减少;石漠化的面积有所减少,石漠化程度正在逐渐减轻。②不同地貌条件下,每一个土地利用类型都有其存在的优势分布区;各土地利用类型的地貌分异基本稳定。③土地利用程度的地貌分异特征趋于稳定;2005-2013年,土地利用程度大小表现为:侵蚀台地 > 峰丛洼地 > 丘峰台地 > Ⅴ型峡谷 > 溶蚀-侵蚀陡坡。④不同地貌条件下不同石漠化等级在各土地类型中的分布方面,由侵蚀台地、峰丛洼地、丘峰台地、Ⅴ型峡谷、溶蚀-侵蚀陡坡地貌的石漠化土地类型分布来看,石漠化主要发生在耕地、林地、园地和未利用地4种土地利用上,水域不存在石漠化现象;2005-2013年,石漠化在不同地貌条件的地类中总体呈较好转变。[结论] 每一土地利用类型都有其分布的优势地貌区;不同地貌条件下,石漠化在不同土地利用类型上的分布存在差异,主要发生在耕地、林地、园地和未利用地4种土地利用类型区域。
关键词:  土地利用  石漠化  地貌  贵州省
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.006
分类号:P951;F301.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金地区项目"喀斯特石漠化地区生态资产与区域贫困耦合机制研究"(41661088);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合平台人才[2017]5726-57);贵州省高层次创新型人才培养计划:"百"层次人才(黔科合平台人才[2016]5674)
Geomorphological Differentiation Characteristics of Land Use Change in Karst Rocky Desertification Area—A Case of Guanling-Zhenfeng Huajiang Rocky Desertification Comprehensive Demonstration Zone in Guizhou Province
Yin Linjiang1,2, Zhou Zhongfa1,2, Zhu Changli1,2, Shang Mengjia1,2
1.Institute of Karst Science/School of Geography and Environmental Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, Chain;2.State Engineering Technology Institute for Karst Desertification Control, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, Chain
Abstract:
[Objective] The geomorphic differentiation characteristics of land use change in rocky desertification areas was explored, and the spatial-temporal change of land use under different geomorphologic conditions was investigated, in order to provide references for the rational use of land in rocky desertification areas.[Methods] Taking Guanling-Zhenfeng Huajiang rocky desertification comprehensive demonstration zone, Guizhou Province as a case study, the land use data, rocky desertification data, and geomorphic data in three periods of 2005, 2010, and 2013 were collected. The topographic distribution index and the comprehensive index of land use degree were derived by using GIS and RS technology, to study the geomorphic changes of the land use change.[Results] ① From 2005 to 2013, the area of grassland, construction land, forest land, unused land and water area in the karst areas was increased, while the area of cultivated land and garden land was decreased. The area of rocky desertification was decreased and the degree of rocky desertification was gradually reduced. ② Under different geomorphologic conditions, each land use type had its own dominant distribution area, the geomorphic differentiation of each land use type was basically stable. ③ The geomorphic differentiation of land use degree tended to be stable. From 2005 to 2013, the degree of land use showed as follows:erosion platform > peak-cluster depression > hill peak plateau > V-shape valley > dissolution-erosion of steep slope. ④ In terms of the distribution of different rocky desertification levels in different land types under the same geomorphologic conditions, rocky desertification mainly occurred in cultivated land, forest land, garden land and unused land, according to the distribution of rocky desertified land types in erosion platform, peak-cluster depression, hill-peak platform, V-shape valley, and dissolution-erosion of steep slope. There was no rocky desertification in the water area. From 2005 to 2013, rocky desertification in different geomorphologic conditions of the land type generally showed good transformation.[Conclusion] Each land use type has its dominant geomorphic area. Under different geomorphologic conditions, the distribution of rocky desertification vary in different land use types, mainly occurred in cultivated land, forest land, garden land and unused land.
Key words:  land use  rocky desertification  geomorphology  Guizhou Province