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塔里木河下游绿洲灌区土壤盐渍化特征及季节性变化规律
丁邦新1,2, 白云岗2, 柴仲平1, 刘洪波2, 蒋磊3, 杨佐怀3
1.新疆农业大学 草业与环境科学学院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052;2.新疆水利水电科学研究院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830049;3.中国地质调查局 乌鲁木齐自然资源综合调查中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830057
摘要:
[目的] 研究典型绿洲灌区土壤盐渍化特征和季节性变化规律,为农业生产调控提供理论依据。[方法] 运用GPS定位技术在塔里木河下游三十一团灌区不同季节进行调查与采样,并结合室内样品测定结果,对该区土壤盐分含量和各盐分离子含量进行经典统计分析和地统计学分析。[结果] 研究区土壤的pH值范围在8.09~8.24之间,不同季节之间的差异不大,土壤呈碱性。土壤盐分含量受季节影响明显,在不同深度均表现为:秋季 > 冬季 > 春季 > 夏季。不同季节下各深度的土壤中主要离子均相同,土壤盐分组成中阴离子主要为SO42-和Cl-,阳离子主要为K+和Na+,土壤盐分类型春季和秋季以硫酸盐型为主,冬季以氯化物-硫酸盐型为主。秋季与冬季的土壤盐分含量随着土层深度的增加逐渐减小,总体呈表聚型,春季与夏季的土壤盐分含量随着土层深度的增加呈先减小后增大的趋势,总体呈底聚型。春季根域层(0-60 cm)土壤的盐分在东南部的含量较高,西北部的含量较低,而深层(60-100 cm)土壤盐分在东南部的含量较底,西北部的含量较高,夏季土壤盐分整体较底,且水平分布较为一致。秋季、冬季土壤盐分的高值区都出现在研究区的西南方向,靠近塔里木河,原始保留地和荒地较多的区域。[结论] 三十一团灌区土壤盐分的周年变化总体表现为秋季、冬季积盐,春季、夏季脱盐,土壤盐分的水平分布主要受土地利用类型、地形因素以及与水源位置距离的影响。
关键词:  盐分季节性变化  土壤盐分  地统计学  塔里木河
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.011
分类号:S156.4+1
基金项目:国家"十三五"重点研发计划项目"农田节水减排控盐技术及应用"(2017YFC0403305),"西北典型农区高效节水灌溉技术与集成应用"(2016YFC0400208)
Soil Salinization Characteristics and Its Seasonal Variation in Oasis Irrigation District of Lower Reaches of Tarim River
Ding Bangxin1,2, Bai Yungang2, Chai Zhongping1, Liu Hongbo2, Jiang Lei3, Yang Zuohuai3
1.College of Pratacultural and Environmental Science, Xinjiang Agriculture University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China;2.Xinjiang Research Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830049, China;3.Urumqi Natural Resources Comprehensive Survey Center, China Geological Survey, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830057, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The characteristics of soil salinization and seasonal variation in the typical oasis irrigation areas were studied, in order to provide theoretical basis for agricultural production regulation.[Methods] Using GPS positioning technology to conduct the field survey in different seasons. Indoor sample measurement, classical statistical analysis and geostatistics were used to analyze soil salinity and salt segregation content in the 31 regiment irrigation area of the lower reaches of the Tarim River.[Results] The pH value of the soil in the study area was ranged from 8.09 to 8.24, there was little difference between the different seasons, and the soil was alkaline. The content of soil salinity was significantly affected by the season, and it showed in different depth as follows:autumn > winter > spring > summer. The main ions in the soil at different depths were the same in different seasons. The anions in the soil salinity were mainly SO42- and Cl-, and the cations were mainly K+ and Na+. Soil salinity types were mainly sulfate in spring and autumn, and chloride-sulfate in winter. The soil salt content in autumn and winter decreased gradually with the increase of soil depth and presented an overall surface aggregation pattern. The soil salt content in spring and summer decreased first and then increased with the increase of soil depth and presented an overall bottom aggregation pattern. In spring, the salt content in root domain layer (0-60 cm) was higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest, while the salt content of deep soil layer (60-100 cm) was lower in the southeast and higher in the northwest. The overall content of soil salinity in summer was low and the horizontal distribution was consistent. High value areas of soil salinity in autumn and winter were found in the southwest of the study area, close to the Tarim river, where there were many original reserves and wasteland.[Conclusion] The annual variation of soil salinity in the 31 regiment irrigated area is generally characterized by salt accumulation in autumn and winter, desalinization in spring and summer, and the horizontal distribution of soil salinity is mainly affected by land use type, topographical factors, and distance from the water source.
Key words:  seasonal variation of salinity  soil salinity  geo-statistics  Tarim River