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大豆冠层对降雨再分配的影响
徐宁1, 杨一凡1, 林青涛1, 吴发启2
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 研究农作物冠层的降雨再分配特征,为区域水土流失治理和生态环境建设提供科学依据。[方法] 以大豆作为研究对象,采取人工模拟降雨法以及喷雾法观测大豆不同生育期(幼苗期、始花期、盛花期、结荚期和始粒期)以及降雨强度(40,80 mm/h)下的茎秆流量、穿透雨量以及冠层截留量,探究大豆全生育期的冠层截留分异特征及叶面积指数和降雨强度对大豆降雨再分配的影响。[结果] 大豆生育期内,茎秆流率平均值为15.02%,穿透雨率平均值为83.94%,冠层截留率平均值仅为1.04%。表明冠层截留所占降雨再分配的比例很小,其对降雨空间分异的影响所占比例较小。随着叶面积指数的增加,大豆的茎秆流量及茎秆流率,冠层截留量及冠层截留率均显著增加,然而穿透雨强度及穿透雨率显著减小。当降雨强度由40 mm/h增大到80 mm/h时,大豆的茎秆流量显著增加,但茎秆流率随雨强的变化并无显著差异;穿透雨量随着雨强的增大而增大,且随着雨强的变化存在显著性差异,但穿透雨率随降雨强度的变化并无显著差异。[结论] 大豆冠层对降雨的再分配主要体现在茎秆流以及穿透雨,冠层截留所占比例很小,且叶面积指数与降雨强度均对降雨再分配有着重要的影响作用。
关键词:  大豆  降雨再分配  茎秆流  穿透雨  冠层截留
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.016
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目"黄土坡耕地作物覆盖与管理的防蚀作用研究"(41977065)
Effects of Soybean Canopy on Rainfall Redistribution
Xu Ning1, Yang Yifan1, Lin Qingtao1, Wu Faqi2
1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The rainfall redistribution characteristics of crop canopy were studied, in order to provide scientific basis for regional soil erosion control and ecological environment construction.[Methods] Soybean was used as the research object. The artificial rainfall simulation and spray method were used to observe the stalk flow, penetrating rainfall and canopy interception at different growth stages of soybean (seedling stage, initial blossoming stage, full flowering stage, pod bearing stage and initial pod filling stage) under different rainfall intensity (40, 80 mm/h), in order to explore the effects of canopy interception differentiation characteristics in the whole growth period of soybean and the influence of leaf area index and rainfall intensity on rainfall redistribution.[Results] The average stalk flow rate was 15.02%, the average penetration rate was 83.94%, and the average canopy interception rate was only 1.04%. It showed that the proportion of rainfall redistribution in canopy interception to rainfall redistribution was small, and its influence on rainfall spatial differentiation was relatively small. With the increase of leaf area index, the stalk flow rate and stalk flow rate, canopy interception and canopy interception rate of soybean increased significantly, but the penetration rain intensity and penetration rate decreased significantly. When the rainfall intensity increased from 40 mm/h to 80 mm/h, the stalk flow rate of soybean increased significantly, but there was no significant difference between stalk flow rate and rain intensity. The penetration rainfall increased significantly with the increase of rain intensity, but there was no significant difference between the penetration rate and the change of rainfall intensity.[Conclusion] The redistribution of rainfall by soybean canopy is mainly reflected in stalk flow and penetrating rain. Canopy interception accounts for a small proportion. And both leaf area index and rainfall intensity have an important effect on rainfall redistribution.
Key words:  soybean  rainfall redistribution  stalk flow  penetrating rain  canopy interception