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水土流失综合治理优先小流域识别的空间尺度效应
符素华1,2, 椹卓岚1, 张志兰3, 魏欣1, 蒋光毅3, 赵辉4, 丁琳1
1.北京师范大学 地理科学学部, 北京 100875;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌, 712100;3.重庆市水土保持监测总站, 重庆 401147;4.水利部水土保持监测中心, 北京 100053
摘要:
[目的] 探讨水土流失综合治理优先小流域识别的空间尺度效应,为小流域水土流失综合治理规划与实施提供科学依据。[方法] 以重庆市合川区为例,利用小流域水土流失面积比例,不同土地利用类型比例和流域平均坡度计算了综合指标,用以识别5种流域空间尺度[Ⅰ(流域面积范围50~300 km2),Ⅱ(10~50 km2),Ⅲ(1~10 km2),Ⅳ(0.1~1 km2)和Ⅴ级(0.01~0.1 km2)]的水土流失综合治理优先小流域。[结果] 流域空间尺度对优先小流域的识别有显著影响。基于Ⅳ和Ⅴ级流域确定的优先小流域在空间分布上与基于栅格土壤侵蚀强度图得到的区域水土流失面积空间分布更为吻合。[结论] 综合考虑优先小流域的条数,基于Ⅳ级流域得到的优先小流域条数更少,更便于进行水土保持综合治理规划和管理,是识别优先小流域的最优流域尺度。
关键词:  水土流失综合治理  优先小流域  空间尺度效应  土壤侵蚀
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.021
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:中国科学院"西部之光"人才培养引进计划项目"流域土壤侵蚀过程模型"
Scale Effect on Identifying Priority Watershed for Comprehensive Control of Soil and Water Loss
Fu Suhua1,2, Shen Zhuolan1, Zhang Zhilan3, Wei Xin1, Jiang Guangyi3, Zhao Hui4, Ding Lin1
1.Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.Chongqing Central Monitoring Station of Soil and Water Conservation, Chongqing 401147, China;4.Monitoring Center of Soil and Water Conservation, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100053, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Identifying priority watershed for soil and water conservation is a premise for the watershed planning. The purpose of this study was to determine the scale effect of identifying the priority watershed.[Methods] Taking Hechuan District, Chongqing Ciyt as an example, the comprehensive indexes was calculated by using the proportion of soil and water loss area, the proportion of land use and the average slope of the basin for identifying the priority watershed. The scale changes from level Ⅰ (with watershed area ranged from 50 to 300 km2), level Ⅱ (10~50 km2), level Ⅲ (1~10 km2), level Ⅳ (0.1~1 km2) and level Ⅴ (0.01~0.1 km2).[Results] The watershed scale had obvious effect on the identification of priority watershed. The distribution of priority watershed derived from level Ⅳ and Ⅴ was more similar to that of soil erosion area derived from soil erosion map in the Hechuan District. The average percentage area of soil loss, the mean proportion of cropland and mining land, and average slope gradient of the priority watersheds from the level Ⅳ and Ⅴ were clearly greater than those from the other levels.[Conclusion] The number of the priority watershed from the level Ⅳ was less than that from the level Ⅴ. The level Ⅳ was the best watershed scale for identifying the priority watersheds. It will aid in the management and planning of the priority watershed based on the level Ⅳ watershed.
Key words:  soil and water conservation  priority watersheds  spatial scale  soil erosion