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绿肥和凹凸棒添加对黄河故道潮土土壤结构和碳氮含量的影响
杨苏1,2, 李传哲1, 徐聪1, 吴迪1, 汪吉东1, 张永春1, 艾玉春1, 李辉信2
1.农业农村部 江苏耕地保育科学观测试验站/江苏省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 江苏 南京 210095;2.南京农业大学 资源与环境科学学院, 江苏 南京 210095
摘要:
[目的] 探究绿肥秸秆和凹凸棒添加对黄河故道潮土壤结构和碳氮含量的影响,为科学评价凹凸棒对农田土壤健康的可持续发展和绿肥秸秆的资源化利用提供理论参考。[方法] 设置6个处理:对照(CK)、蚕豆秸秆10 g/kg(B)、黑麦草秸秆10 g/kg(R)、凹凸棒土16 g/kg(A)、凹凸棒配施蚕豆秸秆(AB)、凹凸棒配施黑麦草秸秆(AR),采用SPSS统计、Origin整合进行数据分析。[结果] 经过120 d室内培养发现:添加绿肥秸秆和凹凸棒均能改善土壤结构、增加碳氮含量,其中A,AB处理主要增加大团聚体(>0.25 mm)含量,而AR处理主要增加微团聚体(0.053~0.25 mm)含量,与CK相比,A,AB,AR处理降低土壤三相结构距离50.8%~55.6%,增加了土壤持水量16.0%~19.2%。单施绿肥秸秆和单施凹凸棒对土壤有机碳、全氮的增量为0.38~1.99 g/kg和0.12~0.49 g/kg,二者配施对土壤有机碳、全氮和微生物量氮的增量比单施绿肥分别高0.86~3.23 g/kg,0.29~0.44 g/kg和0.3~21.6 mg/kg,且蚕豆配施效果优于黑麦草配施。[结论] 配施可以结合秸秆易分解、养分丰富和凹凸棒土较大比表面积的优势,在改良土壤结构,缓解养分释放,增强土壤固存养分能力等方面具有较大优势,其中蚕豆秸秆10 g/kg配施凹凸棒16 g/kg对改良黄河故道土壤砂性结构,提高土壤碳氮含量效果最佳。
关键词:  作物秸秆  凹凸棒  配施  土壤结构  碳氮含量
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.02.029
分类号:S158.3
基金项目:江苏省农业科技自主创新项目"粮食主产区耕地保育与质量提升综合解决方案"(CX(17)-1001);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0800301);国家甘薯产业技术体系(CARS-10-B9);江苏省重点研发项目(BE2019378)
Effects of Adding Straw and Attapulgite on Soil Structure and Carbon and Nitrogen Contents of Old Yellow River Course
Yang Su1,2, Li Chuanzhe1, Xu Cong1, Wu Di1, Wang Jidong1, Zhang Yongchun1, Ai Yuchun1, Li Huixin2
1.Agricultural Science and Technology Research Institute of Agricultural and Rural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China;2.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of adding green manure straw and attapulgite soil on the soil structure and carbon and nitrogen content of the fluvo-aquic soil of the old Yellow River course were studies, in order to provide a theoretical reference for scientific evaluation of attapulgite soil for the sustainable development of farmland soil health and the utilization of green manure straw.[Methods] We set up 6 treatments:control (CK), broad bean straw 10 g/kg (B), ryegrass straw 10 g/kg (R), attapulgite 16 g/kg (A), attapulgite broad bean straw (AB) and attapulgite combined with ryegrass straw (AR), and analyzed the effects of treatments by SPSS statistics and Origin.[Result] After 120 days of indoor cultivation, we found that adding green manure straw and attapulgite soil could improve soil structure and increase carbon and nitrogen content, in which A and AB treatments mainly increased the content of large aggregates (>0.25 mm), and AR treatments mainly increased the content of micro-aggregates (0.053~0.25 mm). Compared with CK, A, AB, and AR treatments reduced the soil three-phase structure distance by 50.8% to 55.6%, and increased soil water holding capacity by 16.0% to 19.2%. The increase of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen with single application of green manure straw and single attapulgite soil was 0.38~1.99 g/kg and 0.12~0.49 g/kg. The combined application of the two fertilizers could greatly improve soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and microbial biomass nitrogen than single application of green manure. The increase rate was 0.86~3.23 g/kg, 0.29~0.44 g/kg and 0.3~21.6 mg/kg higher than that of single application of green manure, respectively. The combined effect on broad bean was better than that of ryegrass.[Conclusion] Combined application can take full advantages of easy decomposition of straw, rich nutrients, and large specific surface area of attapulgite, which has great advantages in improving soil structure, mitigating nutrient release, and enhancing soil solid nutrient capacity. Among them, proportion of 10 g/kg of broad bean straw 10 and 16 g/kg of attapulgite had the best effect in improving the soil sandy structure and increasing soil carbon and nitrogen content in the old course of the Yellw River.
Key words:  crop straw  attapulgite  combined application  soil structure  carbon and nitrogen content