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民勤绿洲灌区保护性耕作对土壤风蚀的影响
李银科, 徐先英, 张莹花, 刘虎俊, 张卫星, 万翔
甘肃省荒漠化与风沙灾害防治重点实验室-省部共建国家重点实验室培育基地, 甘肃民勤荒漠草地生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站, 甘肃省治沙研究所, 甘肃 兰州 730070
摘要:
[目的] 研究绿洲灌区保护性耕作对土壤风蚀的影响,评估保护性耕作在该区防治农田土壤风蚀的作用,为揭示相关机理提供参考。[方法] 以甘肃省民勤治沙综合试验站为例,通过野外风洞试验,以传统耕作为对照,分析保护性耕作对风速廓线、风沙流结构(输沙量)、风蚀量的影响。[结果] 保护性耕作近地表风速降低,大风时近地表风速随高度增加仍均匀增大,与传统耕作迅速增大不同,从而阻止风沙流结构出现“象鼻效应”,输沙量在0—20 cm减小最为明显,土壤风蚀量减小。随试验风速的增大,保护性耕作土壤风蚀减小的程度越大。[结论] 绿洲灌区保护性耕作能有效防止土壤风蚀,其中,立茬地表风速降低最多,输沙量、风蚀量较小,实施简便,适宜推广应用。
关键词:  保护性耕作  土壤风蚀  输沙量  野外风洞  绿洲灌区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.03.036
分类号:S157.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“河西绿洲灌区保护性耕作的防风蚀效应”(41361059);甘肃省林业科技计划项目“甘肃省治沙研究所野外风洞研制与应用”(2017kj023)
Effects of Conservation Tillage on Soil Wind Erosion in Minqin Oasis Irrigation Area
Li Yinke, Xu Xianying, Zhang Yinghua, Liu Hujun, Zhang Weixing, Wan Xiang
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Desertification and Aeolian Sand Disaster Combating, Gansu Minqin National Studies Station for Desert Steppe Ecosystem, Gansu Desert Control Research Institute, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of conservation tillage on soil wind erosion in an oasis irrigation area were studied. The role of conservation tillage of farmland in preventing and controlling soil erosion was evaluated to provide a theoretical basis for revealing related mechanisms.[Methods] Taking Minqin Integrated Desert Control Experimental Station in Gansu Province as a study area, based on field wind tunnel test, taking traditional tillage as the control, the effects of conservation tillage on the wind speed profile, sand flow structure (sediment discharge), and amount of wind erosion were analyzed.[Results] In conservation tillage, the wind speed near the surface decreased. At a high wind speed, the near-surface wind speed increased uniformly with the increase in height. This was different from the rapid increase in traditional tillage, preventing the sand flow structure from showing the "elephant nose effect." The decrease of sediment discharge was most evident at 0-20 cm, and the amount of soil wind erosion decreased. With the increase of the test wind speed, the decrease in the degree of wind erosion by conservation tillage was greater.[Conclusion] Conservation tillage could effectively prevent field soil wind erosion in oasis irrigation areas. The decreasing wind speed of standing stubble was maximum, and the sediment discharge and rate of soil wind erosion were low. The standing stubble method was easy to implement and is suitable for promotion and application.
Key words:  conservation tillage  soil wind erosion  sediment discharge  field wind tunnel  oasis irrigation area