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青海湖流域芨芨草斑块对地表水分再分配过程的影响
蒋志云1, 张思毅2,3, 吴华武4, 魏俊奇5, 黄楚珩1, 李小雁5
1.华南师范大学 地理科学学院, 广东 广州 510631;2.广东省生态环境研究所 广东省农业环境综合治理重点实验室, 广东 广州 510650;3.华南土壤污染控制与修复国家地方联合工程研究中心, 广东 广州 510650;4.中国科学院 流域地理学 重点实验室, 中国科学院 南京地理与湖泊研究所, 江苏 南京 210008;5.北京师范大学 地理科学学部 自然资源学院, 北京 100875
摘要:
[目的] 研究芨芨草斑块对降雨再分配和地表径流过程的影响,为揭示植被斑块的形成与水分调控机理提供依据。[方法] 以青海湖流域芨芨草斑块为例,通过对芨芨草斑块冠层降雨再分配和地表径流进行试验观测,计算水平方向芨芨草斑块水分补偿比例。[结果] ①芨芨草斑块穿透雨占降雨量比例为70.58%,穿透雨主要受降雨量、降雨强度和降雨历时的影响,芨芨草斑块冠层对降雨再分配过程的影响和多数干旱区灌木相似;②芨芨草斑块平均径流系数为0.45%±0.33%,明显低于基质区(2.08%±1.46%),且随着降雨量增加而呈增大趋势;③芨芨草斑块水分补偿比例为1.13%±1.34%,且随着降雨量和降雨强度增加而增大,最高可达到4.94%。[结论] 在生态系统尺度,芨芨草斑块会受到来自基质区的径流补偿,这是斑块植被一种适应干旱的水分调控策略。
关键词:  植被斑块  穿透雨  地表径流  芨芨草  青海湖流域
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.20200803.001
分类号:P334;Q945.17
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“城市森林冠层降水再分配及其对重金属沉降的影响:以广州帽峰山为例”(41901027);广东省科技创新战略专项资金博士启动项目“广州市典型乔木降雨再分配过程对降尘重金属运移的影响研究”(2018A030310517);黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室开放基金资助项目“近40年黄土高原蒸散发时空变化规律及其归因分析”(SKLLQG1910)
Effects of Achnatherum Splendens Patchy on Redistribution of Surface Water Flow in Qinghai Lake Watershed
Jiang Zhiyun1, Zhang Siyi2,3, Wu Huawu4, Wei Junqi5, Huang Chuheng1, Li Xiaoyan5
1.School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510631, China;2.Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-environmental Pollution Control and Management, Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental Science&Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510650, China;3.National-Regional Joint Engineering Research Center for Soil Pollution Control and Remediation in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510650, China;4.Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China;5.School of Natural Resources, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The impacts of Achnatherum splendens patches on rainfall partitioning and surface runoff were studied to provide a basis for revealing the formation of vegetation patches and the mechanism of water regulation recognition.[Methods] The deep-rooted grass of A. splendens was used in the Qinghai Lake watershed as an indicator plant to calculate the water compensation ratio of A. splendens patches in the horizontal direction by observing the redistribution of rainfall and surface runoff in the crown of A. splendens patches.[Results] ① The throughfall of the A. splendens patch accounted for 70.58% of the total rainfall and was mainly affected by rainfall, rain intensity, and duration. This was similar to most shrubs in arid ecosystems. ② The mean runoff coefficient of the A. splendens patch was 0.45%±0.33%. This was significantly lower than that of the matrix (2.08%±1.46%) and increased with rainfall. ③ The water compensation of the A. splendens patch accounted for 1.13%±1.34% of total rainfall, and it increased with rainfall and rain intensity. The highest value of the proportion of water compensation was 4.94%.[Conclusion] The A. splendens patch can be recharged by the runoff from the matrix in the ecosystem scale, which is the water regulation mechanism of drought adaptation for patchy vegetation in arid regions.
Key words:  patchy vegetation  throughfall  runoff  Achnatherum splendens  Qinghai Lake watershed