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滇东海峰岩溶盆地石漠化坡地土壤机械组成和有机碳的变化特征
陈进豪, 范弢, 户红红
云南师范大学 地理学部, 云南省高原地理过程与环境变化重点实验室, 云南 昆明 650500
摘要:
[目的] 探讨滇东海峰自然保护区岩溶盆地内小生境裂隙土壤异质性特征,为该区水土流失的治理提供科学支持。[方法] 通过野外取样结合比重计法、团聚体湿筛法等方法,分析海峰石漠化坡地不同小生境裂隙土壤机械组成、水稳性团聚体和有机碳随深度的变化特征。[结果] ①地表小生境和地下裂隙在空间上具有一定的关联,结合小生境类型和裂隙形态初步将采样裂隙分类命名为土面漏斗、石沟裂隙和石坑小生境。②土面漏斗、石沟裂隙和石坑小生境由于裂隙形态、小生境类型以及有无根系等因素导致土壤性质存在异质性。石坑小生境砂粒含量显著高于土面漏斗和石沟裂隙(p<0.05),粉砂粒含量显著低于石沟裂隙,表层有机碳含量显著低于石沟裂隙(p<0.05);土面漏斗砂粒含量显著高于石沟裂隙,粉砂粒含量显著低于石沟裂隙,表层有机碳含量显著低于石沟裂隙。③土面漏斗、石沟裂隙和石坑小生境的土壤稳定性随土层深度的增加逐渐变差,为土壤的漏失提供便利。深根系植被介入裂隙—土壤系统,改善土壤性质,增强土壤抗侵蚀能力。[结论] 海峰岩溶盆地小生境裂隙土壤性质存在异质性,应加强对小生境的保护和利用,种植深根系植被,改善土壤理化性质,增强土壤抗侵蚀能力。
关键词:  喀斯特坡地  土壤漏失  裂隙  机械组成  团聚体  有机碳
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.006
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“滇东岩溶高原云南松水源林产水功能恢复机理研究”(41661004)
Change Characteristics of Soil Mechanical Composition and Organic Carbon in Rocky Desertification Sloping Land in Haifeng Karst Basin in Eastern Yunnan Province
Chen Jinhao, Fan Tao, Hu Honghong
Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Plateau Geographical Processes and Environment Change, Faculty of Geography, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The objective of this study was to explore the heterogeneity characteristics of the niche fissure soil in the Haifeng karst basin. The purpose was to provide scientific support for the control of Haifeng natural reserve soil erosion at the study area.[Methods] Through field sampling combined with a hydrometer method and aggregate wet sieve method, the soil mechanical composition, water-stable aggregates, and organic carbon of different niche fissures in the rocky desertification sloping land were analyzed.[Results] ① The surface niche and the underground fissure had a certain spatial correlation. Based on the niche type and fissure shape, the sampling fissures were initially classified as soil funnel, stone ditch fissure, and stone pit niche. ② Soil surface funnel, stone ditch fissure, and stone pit niche were heterogeneous because of such factors as fissure shape, niche type, and presence or absence of a root system. The content of sand particles in the stone pit niche was significantly higher than that of the soil surface funnel and stone ditch fissure (p<0.05), and the content of silt grains was significantly lower than that in the stone ditch fissure. The surface organic carbon content was significantly lower than that of the stone ditch fissure (p<0.05). The sand content of the funnel was significantly higher than that of the stone ditch fissure, the silt content was significantly lower than that of the stone ditch fissure, and the surface organic carbon content was significantly lower than that of the stone ditch fissure. ③ The soil stability of the soil surface funnel, stone ditch fissure, and stone pit niche gradually deteriorated with the increase of the soil layer depth, which was convenient for soil loss. Deep root vegetation intervened in the fissure soil system to improve the soil properties and enhance the resistance to soil erosion.[Conclusion] The nature of the niche fissure soil in the Haifeng karst basin is heterogeneous. The protection and utilization of the niche should be strengthened, and deep root vegetation should be planted to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil and enhance soil erosion resistance.
Key words:  karst sloping land  leakage of underground soil  fissure  mechanical composition  aggregates  organic carbon