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砒砂岩区坡位环境梯度下土壤微生物活性及其环境影响因素
马晓丹1, 王思宇1, 郭洋楠1,2, 张焕迪1, 包玉英1,3
1.内蒙古大学 生命科学学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010071;2.中国神华能源股份有限公司 神东煤炭分公司, 陕西 神木 719315;3.牧草与特色作物教育部重点实验室, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010071
摘要:
[目的] 开展砒砂岩区土壤微生物活性及其环境影响因素研究,为发掘本土微生物资源及区域生态环境保护和建设奠定基础。[方法] 以鄂尔多斯砒砂岩区为研究对象,通过实地考察取样,测算土壤微生物数量、酶活性、理化性质以及植被相关指标,分析坡面环境梯度土壤微生物数量分布特征、土壤生态功能、植被多样差异之间的相互影响。[结果] ①砒砂岩区土壤微生物区系中细菌为优势类群,放线菌次之,真菌很少。坡位环境梯度间土壤微生物各生理类群数量差异显著。②不同坡位土壤磷酸酶、蔗糖酶、脲酶、过氧化氢酶活性各异但含量极低。真菌数量与酸性磷酸酶显著正相关,细菌数量与脲酶显著负相关,放线菌数量与磷酸酶和过氧化氢酶显著或极其显著正相关。③研究区土壤水稳性团聚体粒径多集中于0.25~0.5 mm;阴坡0.25~0.5 mm土壤粒径比例大,0.106~0.25 mm粒径比例小,而阳坡和沟底与之相反;土壤含水率呈现:阴坡 > 沟底 > 阳坡;土壤的pH值、铵态氮、有效磷、全碳、全钙含量均为阳坡顶大于其他坡位。细菌数量与含水率、钙含量,放线菌数量与酸碱度均极显著负相关。④环境因子可解释土壤微生物数量差异的90%,其中坡位和土层影响最大(37.31%),植被次之(29.83%),土壤理化性质影响最小(22.86%)。在土壤理化性质中,团聚体粒径、含水率及pH值影响较大。[结论] 砒砂岩区坡位加剧土壤微生物数量和生理类群的分化,微生物的生存能力随着环境条件的下降而下降;生存环境适中的沟底孕育着该区生态修复关键的本土植被及土壤微生物资源。
关键词:  砒砂岩  沟壑  坡位梯度  土壤理化性质  土壤酶活  土壤微生物
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.007
分类号:Q938.1+3
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目子课题“大型能源基地生态恢复技术与示范”(2012BAC10B03),“神东采煤沉陷区生态系统稳定性研究”(CSIE6033593)
Soil Microbial Activity and Its Environmental Influence Factors Under Slope Environmental Gradient in Fieldspathic Sandstone Area
Ma Xiaodan1, Wang Siyu1, Guo Yangnan1,2, Zhang Huandi1, Bao Yuying1,3
1.College of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Inner Mongolia, Hohhot, 010071, China;2.China Energy Investment Group, Shenmu, Shaanxi 719315, China;3.Key Laboratory of Herbage&Endemic Crop Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia, Hohhot, 010071, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The soil microbial activity and its environmental influencing factors were researched to lay a foundation for the exploration of local microbial resources and the protection of a regional ecological environment.[Methods] The Ordos fieldspathic sandstone area was taken as the research object. Vegetation, soil, soil microbial quantity, enzyme activity, physicochemical properties, and vegetation-related indicators were investigated and analyzed. The interrelationship among the quantity distribution characteristics of soil microorganisms, soil ecological function, and vegetation diversity under a slope environmental gradient were also analyzed.[Results] ① Bacteria were the dominant group in the fieldspathic sandstone soil, followed by actinomycetes. Fungi were few. There were significant differences in the number of physiological groups of soil microorganisms among slope environmental gradients. ② Soil phosphatase, sucrase, urease, and catalase activities were different at different slope positions, and their contents were extremely low. There was a significant positive correlation between the fungal quantity and the acid phosphatase, as well as between the actinomycetes quantity and phosphatase and catalase. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the bacteria quantity and urease. ③ The particle sizes of soil water-stable aggregates were mostly concentrated between 0.25 and 0.5 mm. The particle size of 0.25 to 0.5 mm constituted a large proportion of soil in the shady slope, whereas the particle size of 0.106 to 0.25 mm accounted for a small proportion of soil in the shady slope. However, the sunny slope and gully bottom were the opposite of the shady slope. The soil moisture content was as follows: shady slope > gully bottom > sunny slope. The soil pH value and the contents of ammonium nitrogen, olsen-P, carbon, and calcium at the top of the sunny slope were higher than those for other slopes. The bacteria quantity was significantly negatively correlated with moisture content and calcium. The actinomycetes quantity was significantly negatively correlated with the pH value. ④ Environmental factors could account for 90% of the change of soil microbial quantity, among which the slope position and soil layer had the greatest influence (37.31%), followed by the vegetation factor (29.83%) and soil physicochemical properties (22.86%). Among the soil physicochemical properties, the aggregate particle size, moisture content, and pH value had a greater influence.[Conclusion] The slope position intensifies the differentiation of soil microorganism quantity and physiological groups, and the microorganism viability decreases as the environment deteriorates. The bottom of the ditch contains native vegetation and soil microbial resources for ecological restoration.
Key words:  fieldspathic sandstone  gully  slope gradient  soil physics and chemistry  soil enzyme activity  soil microorganism quantity