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沟坡侵蚀汇水区黑土水分和养分的空间异质性
祁志1, 丁超1, 韩兴1, 张兴义2
1.吉林农业大学 资源与环境学院, 吉林, 长春 130118;2.中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150081
摘要:
[目的] 研究坡耕地侵蚀沟汇水区土壤水分和养分空间差异性及其变化,揭示黑土侵蚀对坡耕地粮食生产的影响。[方法] 选取典型黑土坡耕地发育的侵蚀沟汇水区为研究区域,系统观测全生育期土壤水分和养分性状,并秋收测产,解析黑土水分、养分、产量空间异质性及其相关性,分析沟坡侵蚀对土壤质量和作物生产力的影响。[结果] ①沟坡侵蚀对黑土坡耕地土壤水分性状造成了显著的影响,全生育期表层0—20 cm垄沟土壤含水量变异系数12.2%~17.4%,为中等变异;块金值/基台值<0.2,表明具有强烈的空间相关性,雨季块金值/基台值近为0,表明沟坡汇水区土壤含水量完全因地形等结构因子导致的径流迁移的影响,空间有效相关距离最小,为55.2 m。②沟坡汇水区土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、速效磷和速效钾含量变化分别为23.9~49.7,0.8~1.7,0.3~0.6 g/kg,和70.3~183.8,27.8~78.9,71.2~202.1 mg/kg,土壤有机质含量有效空间相关距离小于100 m,全磷含量有效空间相关距离最大,接近500 m。③汇水区大豆产量变化1 669~3 223 kg/hm2,玉米产量变化8 177~10 871 kg/hm2。[结论] 沟坡侵蚀加剧了汇水区土壤水分和养分空间异质性,降低了耕地生产力。
关键词:  黑土  汇水区  土壤水分  养分  作物产量
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.013
分类号:S157.2;S153
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“侵蚀沟复垦关键技术研发与技术体系构建”(2017YFC0504200);国家自然科学基金项目“坡耕地水土保持措施下黑土有机碳演变研究”(41571264)
Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Moisture and Nutrients in Valley-Slope Erosion Watershed in Black Soil Area
Qi Zhi1, Ding Chao1, Han Xing1, Zhang Xingyi2
1.College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118, China;2.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The spatial variations of the soil moisture content and soil nutrient content in an eroded gully catchment of sloping farmland were explored to reveal the effects of black soil erosion on the grain production of sloping farmland.[Methods] The erosion gully catchment area of a typical black-soil sloping farmland region was selected as the study area. Field experiments were conducted to systematically observe the soil moisture properties and soil nutrient content during the entire growth period. The soybean and maize yields were also measured during the autumn. The spatial heterogeneity and correlation between the soil moisture content, soil nutrient content, and soybean and maize yields were determined, and the effects of gully erosion on the soil quality and crop productivity were analyzed.[Results] ① Gully-slope erosion had a significant effect on the soil moisture content of the black soil in the sloping land. The coefficient of variation of the soil moisture content at a depth of 0—20 cm in ridge and furrow soils ranged from 12.2% to 17.4% (i.e., of a medium level), and the nugget/sill was 0.2. There was a strong spatial correlation, and the nugget/sill was close to 0 during the rainy season. This indicated that the soil moisture content in the catchment area was strongly affected by the runoff migration caused by the topography and other structural factors. The spatial effective correlation distance was relatively small (55.2 m). ② The contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), alkali-hydrolyzed N, available P, and available potassium (K) were 23.9~49.7 g/kg, 0.8~1.7 g/kg, 0.3~0.6 g/kg, 70.3~183.8 mg/kg, 27.8~78.9 mg/kg, and 71.2~202.1 mg/kg, respectively. The effective spatial correlation distance of soil organic matter content was < 100 m, and the maximum effective spatial correlation distance of the total P content was close to 500 m. ③ The soybean and maize yields varied from 1 669 to 3 223 kg/hm2 and from 8 177 to 10 871 kg/hm2, respectively.[Conclusion] Gully-slope erosion aggravates the spatial heterogeneity of the soil moisture and nutrient contents in the watershed, and also reduces the productivity of cultivated land.
Key words:  black soil  watershed  soil moisture  soil nutrient  crop yield