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黄土残塬沟壑区不同林龄与坡向人工刺槐林生态系统服务协同关系
袁坤宇1, 曹扬2,3, 杨洁1, 康永祥1, 张利利1
1.西北农林科技大学 林学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.西北农林科技大学 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与 旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 通过权衡关系的研究探索不同林龄与坡向人工刺槐林多项生态系统服务间的差异及动态变化关系,为黄土残塬沟壑区人工刺槐林的经营管理提供理论依据。[方法] 按照不同林龄阶段和坡向共设置36个样地,对所选林分的涵养水源、土壤碳储量、土壤氮储量、年均生产力、生物多样性5个方面的生态系统服务进行测算,利用均方根偏差(RMSD)对该区人工刺槐林生态系统服务的权衡与协同关系进行研究,对生态系统服务与林分因子进行冗余分析。[结果] ①不同林龄、坡向人工刺槐林的生态系统服务差异显著(p<0.05);随林龄增加,涵养水源量和年均生产力从幼龄林到中龄林增加达到最大值,随后逐渐减小;而生物多样性则呈先增后减趋势,在成熟林时期最高;土壤碳、氮储量随林龄增加呈逐渐增加趋势;阴坡的各生态系统服务价值均高于阳坡。②林龄是引起生态系统服务权衡关系变化的主导因子(p<0.05),坡向对生态系统服务权衡关系的影响不显著(p > 0.05),土壤碳固存与土壤氮固存呈协同关系,涵养水源与其他生态系统服务的权衡关系相比程度较高。③人工刺槐林5项生态系统服务与盖度、郁闭度、凋落物厚度呈现不同程度的正相关,与坡度呈现不同程度的负相关。[结论] 人工刺槐林生态系统服务在中龄林和过熟林时期权衡度高,不利于整体生态系统服务效益的发挥。应在中龄林时期引入耐旱灌木或乡土草本,在过熟林经营过程中,在满足涵养水源的前提下,合理控制林分密度,促进其他生态系统服务的作用,提高整体效益。
关键词:  刺槐  生态系统服务  权衡度  残塬沟壑区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.015
分类号:S718.5
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题“残塬沟壑区人工林景观化经营关键技术和示范”(2017YFC0504605)。
Synergy Relation Between Ecosystem Services of Robinia Pseudoacacia Plantation with Different Age and Slope Aspects in Residual Gully Region of Loess Plateau
Yuan Kunyu1, Cao Yang2,3, Yang Jie1, Kang Yongxiang1, Zhang Lili1
1.College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] This study investigated the differences and dynamic relationships among multiple ecosystem services by considering the trade-off relationship of a Robinia pseudoacacia plantation with different ages and slope aspects. The findings will provide a theoretical basis for the scientific management of R. pseudoacacia plantations in the residual gully region of the Loess Plateau.[Methods] We set up 36 plots according to different stages of forest age and different slope aspects. The water conservation, soil carbon storage, soil nitrogen storage, annual productivity, and biodiversity of the selected stands were measured. Statistical parameters including the root mean square deviation were used to determine their trade-off relationship, and a redundancy analysis was performed to determine the correlation between ecosystem services and stand factors.[Results] ① The ecosystem services of the R. pseudoacacia plantation at the various ages and slope aspects were significantly different (p<0.05). As the forest age increased, so did the benefits of water conservation. Annual productivity initially increased but then decreased from young forests to middle-age forests, and was the greatest for the middle-age forests. Biodiversity increased at first and then decreased, and reached the maximum during the mature forest period, whereas the benefits of soil carbon and nitrogen storage increased gradually. Moreover, the benefits of ecosystem services on the shady slope were higher than those on the sunny slope. ② Forest age was the dominant factor causing the change in the ecosystem services trade-off relationship (p<0.05), whereas slope aspect did not have a significant effect on the trade-off of ecosystem services (p>0.05). Soil carbon retention and soil nitrogen retention were synergistic, and the trade-off of water conservation with other ecosystem services was relatively high. ③ The ecosystem services of the plantation were positively correlated with different degrees with coverage, canopy density, and litter thickness, but were negatively correlated with different degrees of slope.[Conclusion] The trade-off of ecosystem services in the R. pseudoacacia plantation was higher during the middle-age and over mature periods, which is not conducive to the overall ecosystem service benefits. Drought-tolerant shrubs or native herbs should be introduced during the middle-age forest period. Regarding the management of the over-mature period, stand density should be reasonably controlled for water conservation such that the role of other ecosystem services can be promoted to improve the overall benefits.
Key words:  Robinia pseudoacacia  ecosystem services  trade-offs  residual gully region