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黑河流域中游荒漠区沙尘暴、扬沙和浮尘监测及其与气候因子的关系
张虎1,2, 刘贤德1,2, 张亚光3, 李小燕1,2, 范菊萍1,2
1.甘肃省祁连山水源涵养林研究院, 甘肃 张掖 734000;2.甘肃张掖生态科学研究院, 甘肃 张掖 734000;3.甘肃省白龙江林业管理局南华生态建设局, 甘肃 高台 734300
摘要:
[目的] 分析黑河流域中游荒漠区沙尘暴、扬沙以及浮尘频次和时长的月变化和年变化,并分析其与主要气候因子的关系,为区域沙尘天气的早期预警和荒漠区的经营和管理提供依据。[方法] 利用黑河流域红沙窝荒漠化综合防治试验站的2010—2019年的沙尘天气监测数据和气象数据进行分析。[结果] 沙尘频次和时长主要集中在春季,其次是冬季,春冬两季的频次和时长各占全年的82.3%和79.4%。10 a间沙尘暴和扬沙频次总体变化趋势逐渐减少,而浮尘频次总体变化趋势逐年增加;沙尘时长总体变化趋势逐年增加。沙尘频次月变化与土壤湿度(10 cm)和大气湿度之间呈极显著负相关(p<0.01),与风速之间呈极显著正相关(p<0.01)。扬沙年际发生频次与土壤温度(5 cm)之间呈显著负相关(p<0.05),与大气温度之间呈极显著负相关(p<0.01)。[结论] 近10 a来,黑河流域中游荒漠区的沙尘天气主要发生在春季和冬季,破坏性较大的沙尘暴和扬沙逐年减少,而浮尘逐年增加。沙尘频次的月变化主要影响因素是浅层土壤湿度、大气湿度和风速。春季的浅层土壤湿度影响了沙尘暴和扬沙年际频次变化,浅层土壤温度影响了浮尘年际频次变化;冬季的浅层土壤温湿度和降水量影响了沙尘暴的年际频次变化,浅层土壤温度和大气温度影响了扬沙的年际频次变化。
关键词:  荒漠区  沙尘天气  气候要素  黑河流域中游
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.20200914.001
分类号:X513
基金项目:国家林业和草原局项目“黑河流域荒漠化和沙化定位监测”;甘肃省林业和草原局林业科技计划项目“张掖市北部荒漠植被生态效益监测研究”(2015kj014)
Monitoring on Dust Storms, Fly Sand, and Floating Dust and Their Relations with Climatic Factors in Middle Reaches of Heihe River
Zhang Hu1,2, Liu Xiande1,2, Zhang Yaguang3, Li Xiaoyan1,2, Fan Juping1,2
1.Academy of Water Resource Conservation Forests of Qilian Mountains in Gansu Province, Zhangye, Gansu 734000, China;2.Academy of Ecology Science of Zhangye City, Zhangye, Gansu 734000, China;3.Nanhua Ecological Construction Bureau, Bailongjiang Forestry Management Bureau of Gansu Province, Gaotai, Gansu 730070, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The monthly and annual changes, the frequency and duration of dust storms, fly sand, and floating dust, and the relations between these and the main climatic factors in the desert area of the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin were analyzed. The aim was to provide a basis for the early warning of sand and dust weather, and the operation and management of desert areas.[Methods] The monitoring data and meteorological data of dust-related weather during 2010—2019 from the test station of desertification control of Hongshawo desert area in the Heihe River basin were used.[Results] Dust storms and fly sand weather were more frequent and longer in spring, followed by winter. The dust-related weather in spring and winter accounted for 82.3% and 79.4% of the frequency and length of these weather phenomena, respectively, across the whole year. In the past 10 years, the overall frequency of dust storms and fly sand gradually decreased, whereas the frequency of floating dust increased year by year, as did the duration of floating dust. The monthly variation in the frequency of floating dust weather was negatively correlated with soil moisture (10 cm depth) and atmospheric humidity (p<0.01), and positively correlated with wind speed (p<0.01). The annual occurrence frequency of sandstorm weather was negatively correlated with soil temperature (5 cm depth, p<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with atmospheric temperature (p<0.01).[Conclusion] In the past 10 years, sand and dust weather events mainly occurred in spring and winter in the desert area of the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin. The more destructive sandstorms and sand movements decreased over this period, whereas floating dust increased year by year. The main factors influencing the monthly variation in sand and dust weather frequency were shallow soil moisture, atmospheric humidity, and wind speed. The shallow soil moisture in spring affected the interannual frequency changes of sandstorms and raised dust, and the shallow soil temperature affected the interannual frequency changes of floating dust; the shallow soil temperature, humidity, and precipitation in winter affected the interannual frequency changes of sandstorms, whereas shallow layer soils and atmospheric temperature influenced the annual frequency change of fly sand.
Key words:  desert area  dust weather  climatic factors  Heihe River basin middle reaches