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基于主成分分析和模糊数学的黄河小浪底水质监测与评价
武俐1, 王祖恒1, 王亮2, 赵同谦1, 金新苗1
1.河南理工大学 资源环境学院, 河南 焦作 454150;2.河南省济源生态环境监测中心, 河南 济源 459000
摘要:
[目的] 监测了黄河小浪底水库南山、大横岭、桐树岭3个断面,分析了黄河小浪底水库水质现状及潜在污染来源,以期为其环境改善提供帮助。[方法] 根据3个断面的水质实测数据,采用主成分分析选择主要评价因子,运用模糊评价法对水库水质进行评价。[结果] 通过主成分分析得到6个主要水质因子,分别是溶解氧(DO)、五日生化需氧量(BOD5)、氨氮(NH3-N)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)。其中DO和BOD5属于Ⅰ类水,其值分别在3.8~12.8 mg/L和0.9~1.7 mg/L之间;NH3-N介于Ⅰ类水与Ⅱ类水之间,其值为0.03~0.72 mg/L;TN超过Ⅴ类水,其值在2~4.88 mg/L之间;TP和CODMn属于Ⅱ类水,其值分别在0.02~0.05 mg/L和1.8~2.7 mg/L之间。通过模糊综合评判法得到水库主要污染物为TN和TP,水质整体属于Ⅲ类水,达到了水质要求。[结论] 通过主成分分析与模糊综合评价法发现,小浪底水库水质基本满足要求,但存在TN和TP污染风险。
关键词:  小浪底水库  主成分分析  模糊综合评价法  潜在污染源
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.018
分类号:X824;X524
基金项目:国家自然科学基金河南省联合基金重点项目“南水北调中线工程水源地氮沉降特征及其生态效应”(U1704241);中原科技创新领军人才项目(194200510010)
Monitoring and Evaluation on Water Quality of Xiaolangdi Reservoir in Yellow River Based on Principal Component Analysis and Fuzzy Mathematics
Wu Li1, Wang Zuheng1, Wang Liang2, Zhao Tongqian1, Jin Xinmiao1
1.Department of Resources and Environment, Hen'nan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, He'nan 454150, China;2.He'nan Jiyuan Ecological Environment Testing Center, Jiyuan, He'nan 459000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Three sections of Xiaolangdi Reservoir (Nanshan, Dahengling, and Tongshuling) in the Yellow River were monitored. The present situanion of water quality and potential pollution sources of the reservoir were analyzed in order to provide help for its environmental improvement.[Methods] According to the measured water quality data of the three sections, a principal component analysis was performed to select the main evaluation factors, and the fuzzy evaluation method was used to evaluate the water quality of the reservoir.[Results] Six primary water quality factors were obtained from the principal component analysis: dissolved oxygen (DO), the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and the potassium permanganate index (CODMn). The DO concentration and BOD5 belonged to class I, with values of 3.8—12.8 and 0.9—1.7 mg/L, respectively. The NH3-N concentration ranged from 0.03 to 0.72 mg/L, which was between classes Ⅰ and Ⅱ. The TN concentration ranged from 2 to 4.88 mg/L, which was worse than the standard of class Ⅴ. The TP concentration and CODMn belonged to class Ⅱ, and their values were 0.02—0.05 and 1.8—2.7 mg/L, respectively.[Conclusion] Through a principal component analysis and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, it was found that the water quality of Xiaolangdi Reservoir basically met the legislative requirements; however, there was a risk of TN and TP pollution.
Key words:  Xiaolangdi Reservoir  principal component analysis  fuzzy comprehensive method  potential pollution source