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建筑与小区生物滞留设施植物群落景观评价与植物配置分析——以北京市通州区海绵城市试点区为例
韩元1, 刘玲2,3, 赵利1, 孟莹莹1, 冯昶栋3, 李雨晴4
1.北控水务(中国)投资有限公司, 北京 100102;2.河北大学 生命科学学院 生态与环境治理研究所, 河北 保定 071002;3.北京林业大学 水土保持学院, 北京 100083;4.清华大学 环境学院, 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100084
摘要:
[目的] 评价建筑与小区绿色低影响开发(LID)生物滞留设施的植物群落配置适宜性和景观效果,为北京地区生物滞留设施植物群落景观应用提供实践参考。[方法] 以北京市通州区海绵城市试点区建成项目中生物滞留设施为研究对象,基于专家咨询、现场植被调查,应用层次分析法提出了生物滞留设施植物群落景观评价因素,从3个准则层和10个指标层构建体系,采用此模型评价了15个具有代表性生物滞留设施,45个样本的植物群落景观。[结果] 生物多样性是生物滞留设施植物景观评价的关键性指标,5个示范工程中Bobo自由城草本植物Simpson多样性、Shannon-Wienner多样性和Pielou均匀度指数最高,多样性指数分别为2.09,0.86,0.87。通州海绵城市试点区生物滞留设施植物群落景观总体处于较高水平,Ⅰ级生物滞留设施植物景观5个,Ⅱ级植物景观4个,各占评价样方的33.3%和26.7%;Ⅲ级景观5个,占评价样方的33.3%;Ⅳ级景观1个,占评价样方的6.7%。实际应用中评价效果较好,适宜性高的植物包括玉簪(Hosta plantaginea)、千屈菜(Lythrum salicaria)、八宝景天(Hylotelephium erythrostictum)和狼尾草(Pennisetum alopecuroides)等,季相景观出现频率较高的植物包括鸢尾(Iris tectorum)、八宝景天、荷兰菊(Symphyotrichum novi-belgii)等。[结论] 在植物群落配置中,应注重LID设施与植物配置功能的匹配,重视乡土植物开发与利用构建植物群落、考虑植物的层次和形态,增加不同季节植物景观的多样性。
关键词:  生物滞留设施  植物群落  层次分析  配置模式
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.20200927.003
分类号:TU986.2
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项“北京城市副中心高品质水生态与水环境技术综合集成研究”(2017ZX07103-007);北京市通州区科技计划项目“通州区海绵城市建设关键技术研发及适宜性技术评估”(KJ2019CX059)
Plant Community Landscape Evaluation and Plant Configuration Analysis of Bio-retention Facilities in Buildings and Communities -A Case Study at Sponge City Pilot Area in Tongzhou District, Beijing City
Han Yuan1, Liu Ling2,3, Zhao Li1, Meng Yingying1, Feng Changdong3, Li Yuqing4
1.Beijing Enterprises Water Group Limited, Beijing 100102, China;2.Institute of Ecology and Environmental Governance, College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002, China;3.School of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China;4.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The suitability of the plant community configuration and landscape effect of green low impact development (LID) bio-retention facilities in buildings and residential areas was evaluated to provide a practical reference for the landscape application of bio-retention facility plant communities in Beijing City.[Methods] The bio-retention facilities of the sponge city pilot at Tongzhou District, Beijing City, were examined as the research object based on expert consultation and a field vegetation survey. The analytic hierarchy process was used to propose the factors for the evaluation of the plant landscape in bio-retention facilities, and the system was constructed from three criteria layers and 10 index layers. This model was used to evaluate the plant suitability of 45 samples of 15 biological retention measures.[Results] The biodiversity was a key indicator for the evaluation of plant landscapes in bio-retention facilities. Among the five sponge city pilots, the Simpson diversity of herbaceous plants, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou evenness index were the higher for the Bobo pilot, with diversity indexes of 2.09, 0.86, and 0.87, respectively. The plant community landscape of the biological retention facilities in Tongzhou sponge city pilot area was at a high level. The plant landscape for five biological retention facilities was grade I, whereas four, five, and one were of grade Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, which accounted for 33.3%, 26.7%, 33.3% and 6.7% of the evaluation units, respectively. The plants with good evaluation effects and high suitability for practical applications included Hosta plantaginea, Lythrum salicaria, Hylotelephium erythrostictum, and Pennisetum alopecuroides. The plants with a high frequency in a seasonal landscape included Iris tectorum, Hylotelephium erythrostictum, and Symphyotrichum novi-belgii.[Conclusion] In the plant community configuration, it is necessary to pay attention to matching the LID facilities and plant configuration functions, and the development and utilization of native plants to construct the plant community. The plant hierarchy and plant morphology, and ways to increase the diversity of the plant landscape in different seasons, should also be considered.
Key words:  bio-retention facilities  plant community  analytic hierarchy process  configuration mode