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地表水环境质量指数的定量分级及其适用性
裴晓龙1, 丁强1, 杨玉珍1, 彭功平2, 杨瑾1, 王一博1
1.陕西省环境监测中心站 水环境监测室, 陕西 西安 710054;2.力合科技(湖南)股份有限公司, 湖南 长沙 410205
摘要:
[目的] 为了实现地表水环境质量定性评价与定量评价的统一,简化地表水环境质量评价过程,减少公众对水质评价的认知难度。[方法] 应用地表水环境质量指数(SWQI),通过对陕西省地表水监测网2015—2019年1.83×105个监测数据进行数据统计分析。[结果] 78.7%的样本SWQI指数落在2.5~8区间,点位最为密集;各水质类别中,SWQI指数各区间样本个数均近似正态分布或半正态分布。[结论] ①用统计方法得到SWQI定性评价Ⅰ—Ⅵ级阈值(≤3.5,≤5,≤6.5,≤8,≤10,>10);②分级阈值在断面、河流、区域3个层次上的验证显示了与现行地表水环境质量评价办法具有良好的一致性。使用SWQI指数对地表水环境质量进行评价,可以实现与现行评价办法的对接过渡。
关键词:  地表水  环境质量评价  定量分级  分级阈值  地表水环境质量指数(SWQI)
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.022
分类号:X824
基金项目:陕西省社会发展科技攻关项目“渭河(陕西段)重金属的分布特征及潜在风险评估研究”(2015SF282);陕西省教育厅专项科研计划项目(17JK0379)
Quantitative Classification and Applicability of Surface Water Environmental Quality Index
Pei Xiaolong1, Ding Qiang1, Yang Yuzhen1, Peng Gongping2, Yang Jin1, Wang Yibo1
1.Water Environment Monitoring Office, Shaanxi Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center Station, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054, China;2.Lihe Technology Co., Ltd(Hu'nan), Changsha, Hu'nan 410205, China
Abstract:
[Objective] To realize the unification of qualitative and quantitative evaluation, simplify the process of surface water environmental quality assessments, and reduce the public's difficulty in the cognition of water quality.[Methods] Using the surface water environmental quality index (SWQI), a statistical analysis was conducted based on 1.83×105 monitoring data points from the surface water monitoring network of Shaanxi Province from 2015 to 2019.[Results] Considering SWQIs, 78.7% of them were in the range of 2.5—8.0, which had the densest points. The number of samples in each interval of the SWQI index had an approximately normal or semi-normal distribution.[Conclusion] ① We used statistical methods to obtain the SWQI qualitative evaluation thresholds Ⅰ—Ⅵ (≤ 3.5, ≤ 5.0, ≤ 6.5, ≤ 8.0, ≤ 10.0, > 10.0). ② The verification showed that it was consistent with the current surface water environment quality evaluation method at three levels of verification (section, river, and region). The SWQI can be used to evaluate the surface water environmental quality and realize the transition to the current evaluation method.
Key words:  surface water  environmental quality assessment  quantitative classification  classification threshold  surface water environmental quality index (SWQI)