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黑土区坡式条田对水土流失、土壤水热及呼吸的影响
张瑜, 徐子棋, 杨献坤, 崔斌
吉林省水土保持科学研究院, 吉林 长春 130033
摘要:
[目的] 探索坡式条田在黑土区坡耕地水土保持和改善土壤环境中的作用,以期为坡式条田在坡耕地上的利用提供理论支持。[方法] 基于野外试验,观测研究了坡式条田对径流产沙、土壤水热和土壤呼吸的影响。[结果] ①黑土坡面设置坡式条田具有良好的减流减沙效果,年均减少输沙率和减少地表径流率分别为78.3%和68.5%,土壤侵蚀模数为87.53 t/(km2·a),控制在允许范围内;②修筑坡式条田显著提高土壤质量含水量(p<0.05),并能显著增加植被覆盖度(p<0.01);③研究区土壤呼吸与土壤温度显著相关,修筑坡式条田能够显著降低土壤呼吸速率,降低土壤碳素损失。[结论] 黑土区坡式条田能够很好地防治水土流失,改善土壤水热和植被状况,且能降低土壤呼吸造成的C素流失,应在黑土坡耕地上推广应用。
关键词:  黑土区  坡式条田  水土流失  土壤水热  土壤呼吸
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.024
分类号:S157.3
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“东北黑土区坡面水土流失综合治理技术”(2018YFC0507002-05);国家重点研发计划“东北黑土区侵蚀沟生态修复关键技术研发与集成示范”(2017YFC0504200);吉林省财政厅项目“吉林省中东部生态小流域关键技术”
Effects of Sloping Contour Earth Bund on Soil Erosion, Moisture, Temperature, and Respiration in Black Soil Area of Northeast China
Zhang Yu, Xu Ziqi, Yang Xiankun, Cui Bin
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin 130033, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The function of sloping contour earth bunds with respect to soil and water conservation and environmental enhancement on sloping farmland in a black soil area was investigated in order to provide theoretical support for the use of sloping contour earth bunds on sloping farmland.[Methods] Field experiments were carried out to observe the effects of a sloping contour earth bund on soil erosion, the soil water content, soil temperature, and soil respiration.[Results] ① The sloping contour earth bund had a remarkable effect on reducing the amount of soil erosion in the black soil area; the amount of erosion was 87.53 t/(km2·a), which was less than the allowable amount of erosion. ② Construction of the sloping contour earth bund significantly increased the soil water content (p<0.05) and the vegetation coverage ratio (p<0.01). ③ The soil respiration and soil temperature were significantly correlated in the research area, and the sloping contour earth bund clearly reduced the soil respiration rate and soil carbon loss.[Conclusion] The sloping contour earth bund exhibited remarkable effects for reducing soil erosion, improving the soil water content and temperature conditions, and reducing the soil respiration rate and soil carbon loss; hence, it is suitable for sloping farmland in the black soil area.
Key words:  black soil area  sloping contour earth bund  soil erosion  soil water content and temperature  soil respiration