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基于小流域土壤侵蚀严重指数的县域土壤侵蚀制图研究
李骜1,2, 顾治家3
1.北京师范大学 地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100875;2.北京师范大学 地理科学学部, 北京 100875;3.信阳师范学院 地理科学学院, 河南省水土环境污染协同防治重点实验室, 河南 信阳 464000
摘要:
[目的] 开展水土流失调查,提取和制作必需的数据、图件及相关资料,实现水土流失调查对县域水土保持规划的全面支撑。[方法] 基于黑龙江省齐齐哈尔市拜泉县小流域划分,开展土壤侵蚀严重指数图、土壤侵蚀强度图和水土流失面积比例图的对比分析。[结果] 基于小流域土壤侵蚀严重指数的县域土壤侵蚀图具有明显的比较优势:①该图能够综合反映县域水土流失的面积、强度和分布,并定量、精准地落实到水蚀单元——小流域上;②基于该图,能够直接生成规划必需的水土流失重点防治区分布图、水土流失防治格局图和重点项目分布图;③基于该图,结合小流域土壤侵蚀强度图,可为小流域尺度上、治理模式层面的措施典型设计及其配置提供落实到地块的基础数据。[结论] 从开展水土流失调查,划定水土流失重点预防区和重点治理区、全面支撑水土保持规划的全流程角度分析,基于小流域土壤侵蚀严重指数的县域土壤侵蚀制图具有更好的比较优势。
关键词:  县域  小流域  土壤侵蚀严重指数  土壤侵蚀制图
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.20200908.001
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“东北黑土区坡面水土流失综合治理技术”(2018YFC0507004)
Soil Erosion Mapping at County Scale Based on Index of Soil Erosion Severity of Small Watersheds
Li Ao1,2, Gu Zhijia3
1.State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;2.Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;3.Key Laboratory for Synergistic Prevention of Water and Soil Environmental Pollution, School of Geographic Sciences, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang, He'nan 464000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] A soil and water loss survey was conducted. The necessary data, the maps, and other relevant data were obtained to provide comprehensive support for water and soil conservation plans at county scale.[Methods] Based on the small watershed division in Baiquan County, Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang Province, a comparative analysis was used for soil loss mapping using the indices of soil erosion severity, soil erosion intensity, and the proportions of soil and water loss areas.[Results] Mapping based on the index of the soil erosion severity of a small watershed had obvious comparative advantages. ① The map can comprehensively reflect the area, intensity, and distribution of soil and water loss in the county. These can be implemented quantitatively and accurately to the water erosion unit—the small watershed. ② Based on this map, the distribution map of key prevention and control areas of soil and water loss, soil and water loss prevention, and the control layout map and major projects distribution map can be created directly. ③ The map, combined with the soil erosion intensity map of small watersheds, can provide necessary data for typical measure designs and configurations on a small watershed scale. Those data can be implemented to every plot.[Conclusion] From the perspective of carrying out a soil and water loss survey, delimitation of key prevention and control areas of soil and water loss, and comprehensively supporting the whole process of soil and water conservation planning, the county scale soil erosion mapping based on the index of the soil erosion severity of a small watershed has better comparative advantages.
Key words:  county scale  small watershed  index of soil erosion severity  soil erosion mapping