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陕西省榆林市植被生态演变及其驱动机制
马锋1,2, 卓静3, 何慧娟3, 韩姗姗1
1.榆林市气象局, 陕西 榆林 719099;2.榆林市能源化工气象服务重点实验室, 陕西 榆林 719099;3.陕西省农业遥感与经济作物气象服务中心, 陕西 西安 710016
摘要:
[目的] 研究陕西省榆林市植被生态演变规律以及驱动机制,为该区域生态恢复工程成效评价提供科学数据。[方法] 基于2000—2018年美国MODIS卫星植被指数产品MOD13Q1和像元二分方法对陕西省榆林市的植被生态系统进行反演,同时利用趋势分析法和相关性分析等方法研究气候条件和人为因素对植被生态变化的驱动机制。[结果] ①2000—2018年榆林市植被生态明显改善,主要表现为植被覆盖度在波动中呈现极显著增加趋势,年均增速1.47%/a;所辖各区县中吴堡县增加最大。南部黄土高原丘陵沟壑区植被覆盖度增速1.66%,高于北部风沙草滩区的1.17%。②2000—2018年,整体气候条件呈现暖湿化,表现为年降水量呈现很显著增加趋势,增加232.2 mm,增幅78.8%,年均增速10.7 mm/a;年均气温增加趋势不显著,增加0.3℃,增幅2.8%,年均增速0.11℃/a。年降水量与植被覆盖度呈现极显著正相关,年均气温与植被覆盖度相关性不显著,气候条件对于植被生态恢复起到了促进作用。[结论] 退耕还林工程和防沙治沙示范建设工程调整了产业结构,黄土高原丘陵沟壑区减少了水土流失,毛乌素沙地风沙草滩区流沙得到有效治理,生态建设效益显著。生态恢复工程是研究区植被生态恢复的主要驱动力。
关键词:  陕西省榆林市  生态脆弱区  植被变化  驱动机制
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.05.037
分类号:X171.4;Q948.112
基金项目:陕西省科技厅重点研发项目“陕西省环境与农业信息多源遥感动态监测示范系统建设”(2018ZDXM-GY-023);陕西省科技厅重点研发计划社发类项目“GIS和RS支持下的陕北地区生态脆弱性评价”(2018SF-386)
Ecological Evolution and Driving Mechanism of Vegetation in Yulin City, Shaanxi Province
Ma Feng1,2, Zhuo Jing3, He Huijuan3, Han Shanshan1
1.Yulin Meteorological Bureau, Yulin, Shaanxi, 719099, China;2.Yulin Energy and Chemical Meteorological Service Key Laboratory, Yulin, Shaanxi, 719099, China;3.Shaanxi Agricultural Remote Sensing and Economic Crop Meteorological Service Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710016, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The ecological evolution and driving mechanism of vegetation in Yulin City, Shaanxi Province, were studied to provide scientific data for the effect of ecological restoration projects in Yulin City.[Methods] Based on the MODIS satellite vegetation index product mod13Q1 and a pixel bisection method from 2000 to 2018, the vegetation ecosystem of Yulin City in Shaanxi Province, China, was retrieved, and the driving mechanism of the influence of climate conditions and human factors on vegetation ecological change was studied by trend analysis and correlation analysis.[Results] ① From 2000 to 2018, the vegetation ecology of Yulin City improved significantly, which was mainly manifested in the extremely significant increase trend of vegetation coverage in fluctuation, with an average annual growth rate of 1.47%. Wubu County had the largest increase among the districts and counties under its jurisdiction. ② From 2000 to 2018, the overall climate conditions became warmer and humider, and the annual precipitation showed a significant increase trend. The annual average temperature increase trend was not significant. The correlation between annual precipitation and vegetation coverage was significant, but the correlation between annual temperature and vegetation coverage was insignificant.[Conclusion] The project of returning farmland to forest and the project of the demonstration and construction of sand prevention and control have adjusted the industrial structure and reduced soil erosion. The quicksand in the sandy grassland of the Maowusu Desert has been effectively controlled, and the ecological construction benefits are significant. The ecological restoration project is the main driving force of vegetation ecological restoration in the study area.
Key words:  Yulin City of Shaanxi Province  ecologically fragile area  vegetation change  driving force