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黄土丘陵区生物结皮土壤温度年内动态特征及其对土壤水分的响应
王闪闪1,2, 赵允格1, 杨光3, 任伟1, 杨凯4, 张子辉4
1.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨陵 712100;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.吴起县气象局, 陕西 吴起 717600;4.西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 明确黄土丘陵区粉砂质壤土上生物结皮土壤温度年内动态以及其与土壤水分的关系,为进一步理解生物结皮在黄土丘陵区生态系统中的功能提供科学依据。[方法] 于2016年1月1日至2018年12月31日在陕西省吴起县退耕封禁地进行野外长期定位监测试验。[结果] ①生物结皮土壤温度具有明显的年内动态。一般生物结皮层月均温最高出现在6月,为27.1℃;结皮层下5 cm土壤月均温最高在7月,为22.7℃;生物结皮层和结皮层下5 cm土壤月均温均在1月最低,分别为-1.7和-1.4℃。②生物结皮层和结皮层下5 cm土壤温度日动态均为正弦曲线。生物结皮层和结皮层下5 cm土壤温度最大日较差均出现在6月,分别为32.0和17.2℃;10月生物结皮层温度日较差最小,为17.3℃,1月结皮层下5 cm土壤温度日较差最低为8.5℃。③年内生物结皮土壤温度与气温呈显著正相关;3-10月生物结皮土壤温度与土壤水分呈显著负相关,11-12月生物结皮土壤温度与土壤水分呈显著正相关。④1月和7月土壤含水量的增加导致生物结皮层和结皮层下5 cm土壤温度日较差下降。[结论] 黄土丘陵区粉砂质壤土上生物结皮土壤温度与土壤含水量密切相关,且不同月份土壤水分对生物结皮土壤温度的影响程度不同。
关键词:  生物结皮  温度  季节动态  土壤含水量
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2020.06.006
分类号:S152.8
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“黄土高原生物结皮对坡面水土流失过程的影响及模拟”(41830758),“黄土高原生物结皮水土保持效应对干扰的响应及协同机理”41571268)
Annual Dynamic of Soil Temperature of Biocrusts and Its Responses to Soil Moisture in Loess Hilly Region
Wang Shanshan1,2, Zhao Yunge1, Yang Guang3, Ren Wei1, Yang Kai4, Zhang Zihui4
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resource, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Wuqi Meteorological Bureau, Wuqi, Shaanxi 717600, China;4.College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The relationship between temperature dynamics of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) and soil moisture on silty loam in the loess hilly region of China was clarified in order to provide scientific basis for further understanding the function of biocrusts.[Methods] A field monitoring experiment was conducted in the abandoned farmland in Wuqi County, Shaanxi Province from January 1 st, 2016 to December 31 st, 2018.[Results] ① Soil temperature of biocrusts had obvious dynamic within a year. During the observation period, the highest temperature of biocrusts layer occurred in June with an average temperature of 27.1℃, the highest temperature of 5 cm soil under biocrusts layer was 22.7℃ in July. The lowest temperature of biocrusts layer and 5 cm soil in January were -1.7℃ and -1.4℃, respectively. ② The diurnal dynamics of soil temperature in the biocrusts layer and 5 cm soil were changed in a sinusoidal curve throughout the year. The maximum diurnal temperature range appeared in June, and biocrusts layer and 5 cm soil were 32.0℃ and 17.2℃, respectively. The minimum diurnal temperature range of biocrusts layer was 17.3℃ in October, while 5 cm soil was 8.5℃ in January. ③ The soil temperature of biocrusts throughout the year was significantly positively correlated with air temperature, the soil temperature of biocrusts from March to October was significantly negatively correlated with soil moisture, and the soil temperature of biocrusts from November to December was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture. ④ The increase of soil water content (SWC) in January and July resulted in a decrease in diurnal temperature range of biocrusts layer and 5 cm soil.[Conclusion] The soil temperature of biocrusts on silty loam in the loess hilly region of China was closely related to the soil moisture, and the influence of soil moisture on the soil temperature of biocrusts was different in different months.
Key words:  biocrusts  temperature  seasonal dynamic  soil water content