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1960-2017年贵州省不同水系降雨侵蚀力时空变异特征
朱大运1,2, 杨倩1,2, 陈海1,2, 陈静1,2, 李少男1,2
1.贵州师范大学 喀斯特研究院, 贵州 贵阳 550001;2.国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心, 贵州 贵阳 550001
摘要:
[目的] 研究喀斯特生态脆弱区降雨侵蚀力区域特征,为区内水土流失防治、生态保护等工作提供科学参考。[方法] 基于贵州省33个气象站点1960-2017年逐日降雨资料,利用空间插值、线性趋势、重心模型、突变检验、聚类分析等方法,对比分析了不同水系降雨侵蚀力时空变异特征。[结果] 贵州省不同水系多年降雨侵蚀力以波动下降趋势为主,与基于聚类分区的各区域变化趋势基本一致,但突变特征不明显。降雨侵蚀力空间变异性较大,长江流域水系空间分布呈现出从东南向西北递减特征,而珠江流域水系则表现为从东向西递增。大雨与降雨侵蚀力分布密切关联,年内降雨侵蚀力重心迁移路径与大雨重心较为一致,主要集中在贵阳市及其周边县区。降雨侵蚀力与经度、纬度、海拔和坡度均呈不同程度的显著相关性(p<0.05),与坡向的相关性不明显。[结论] 贵州省各水系降雨侵蚀力时空变异性较强,区域特征明显。应根据区域特征进行喀斯特生态脆弱区水土流失定向阻控。
关键词:  降雨侵蚀力  水系  重心模型  时空变异性  贵州省
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.002
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“高原山地石漠化典型区土壤地表—地下水流失贡献率研究”(41907042);贵州教育厅青年科技人才成长(黔教合KY字[2018]127);国家十三五重点研发计划(2016YFC0502601);贵州师范大学学术新苗培养项目(2019)
Spatiotemporal Variations in Rainfall Erosivity of Different River Systems in Guizhou Province During 1960-2017
Zhu Dayun1,2, Yang Qian1,2, Chen Hai1,2, Chen Jing1,2, Li Shaonan1,2
1.School of Karst Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China;2.State Engineering Technology Institute for Karst Desertification Control, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The regional characteristics of rainfall erodibility in karst ecologically fragile areas were studied in order to provide scientific reference for soil erosion prevention and eco-environment protection.[Methods] Long-term (1960-2017) daily precipitation data from 33 meteorological stations were assembled to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of rainfall erosivity in different river systems of Guizhou Province, and the spatial interpolation, linear trend, gravity model, mutation test, and cluster analysis methods were used.[Results] The rainfall erosivity of the eight river systems mainly showed a fluctuating downward trend, which was consistent with the regional variation trend based on the cluster division, but an abrupt change was not obvious. The spatial variability of rainfall erosion was great. The spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity in the Yangtze River basin decreased from southeast to northwest, while that in the Pearl River basin increased from east to west. Heavy rain was closely related to rainfall erosivity because the migration path of the gravity center was similar to that of rainfall erosivity, and the gravity centers were mainly concentrated in Guiyang City and its surrounding areas. Most of the river systems showed a significant correlation (p<0.05) between rainfall erosivity and longitude, latitude, altitude, and slope, but the correlation with aspect was not obvious.[Conclusion] The spatiotemporal variability of rainfall erodibility in various water systems in Guizhou Province is strong, and the regional characteristics are obvious. Soil erosion control should be carried out in karst ecologically fragile areas according to regional characteristics.
Key words:  rainfall erosivity  river system  gravity model  spatiotemporal distribution  Guizhou Province