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祁连山东段高寒植被类型对土壤理化特征的影响
王迪, 赵锦梅, 雷隆举, 张雪, 徐长林
甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070
摘要:
[目的] 探讨祁连山东段不同高寒植物的土壤理化特征,为区域水资源合理利用提供理论依据。[方法] 对祁连山东段6种灌丛植被和高寒草地的土壤基本性状、土壤持水能力和土壤渗透性进行了相关指标的测定。[结果] ①祁连山东段高寒植被的土壤容重随着土层深度的增加而增大,土壤含水量则随着土层深度的增加而降低。②祁连山东段土壤总孔隙度随着土层深度的增加而减小,毛管孔隙和非毛管孔隙无明显的垂直变化规律;③祁连山东段土壤最大持水量随着土层深度的增加而递增,土壤毛管持水量表现为先减少后增加的变化趋势;土壤非毛管持水量变化规律则不太明显。④祁连山东段土壤初渗透率(0.58~2.81 mm/min)高于平均渗透率(0.05~1.26 mm/min)和稳渗透率(0.04~1.31 mm/min),6种高寒植被的土壤初渗透率表现为高寒草地>山生柳>硬叶柳>绣线菊>千里香杜鹃>金露梅>头花杜鹃;平均渗透率表现为绣线菊>金露梅>千里香杜鹃>山生柳>硬叶柳>高寒草地>头花杜鹃;稳渗透率表现为绣线菊>金露梅>千里香杜鹃>山生柳>硬叶柳>头花杜鹃灌丛>高寒草地。[结论] 研究区域高寒植物类型的不同会对该区域土壤理化特征产生不同影响,即土壤理化特征与植物之间存在相互联系与相互作用的关系。
关键词:  土壤持水  土壤渗透  高寒植被  祁连山东段
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.006
分类号:S714.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“东祁连山区高寒灌丛土壤水文效应研究”(41661060)
Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Different Alpine Plants in Eastern Qilian Mountains
Wang Di, Zhao Jinmei, Lei Longju, Zhang Xue, Xu Changlin
College of Forestry, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The changes in soil physical and chemical properties under different alpine vegetation in the Eastern Qilian Mountains were explored to provide a theoretical basis for the rational utilization of regional water resources.[Methods] The basic soil properties, soil water holding capacity, and soil permeability of different alpine vegetation types were studied.[Results] ① The soil bulk density in the Eastern section of the Qilian Mountains increased with the increase in soil depth, while the soil water content decreased with the increase in soil depth. ② The total soil porosity in the Eastern Qilian Mountains decreased with the increase in soil depth, and the capillary pores and noncapillary pores had no obvious vertical variation. ③ The maximum soil water holding capacity gradually increased as the depth of the soil layer increased. The soil capillary water holding capacity showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. The soil noncapillary water holding capacity had a slightly different pattern. ④ The initial soil infiltration rate (0.58 to 2.81 mm/min) in the eastern section of the Qilian Mountains was higher than the average permeability (0.05 to 1.26 mm/min) and steady infiltration rate (0.04 to 1.31 mm/min). The initial soil infiltration performance of six alpine vegetations was alpine meadow > Salix oritrepha > Salix sclerophylla > Spiraea salicifolia > Rhododendron thymifolium > Potentilla fruticosa > Rhododendron capitatum. The average permeability was S. salicifolia > P. fruticosa > R. thymifolium > S. oritrepha > S. sclerophylla > Alpine meadow > R. capitatum. The steady infiltration rate was S. salicifolia > P. fruticosa > R. thymifolium > S. oritrepha > S. sclerophylla > R. capitatum > alpine meadow.[Conclusion] The different types of alpine plant in the study area had different effects on the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil in the area. There was a relationship and interaction between the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and plants, and the two were interdependent.
Key words:  soil water retention  soil permeability  alpine vegetation  Eastern Qilian Mountains