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覆土处理对高寒矿区露天煤矿排土场植被和土壤特征的影响
高志香1, 李希来1,2, 张静1,2, 金立群1, 周伟3
1.青海大学 农牧学院, 青海 西宁 810016;2.青海-广东自然资源监测与 评价联合实验室, 青海 西宁 810016;3.中国地质大学 土地科学技术学院, 北京 100083
摘要:
[目的] 探讨高寒矿区覆土处理对露天煤矿排土场植被恢复的影响,以评估覆土措施在露天煤矿排土场所达到的植被恢复效果,为高寒矿区生态保护和恢复提供技术依据。[方法] 调查分析青海省木里煤田不同年限5个覆土处理和3个不覆土处理矿区排土场植被群落特征和土壤理化性质。[结果] 在覆土处理下,随着建植年限的增加,木里煤矿排土场植被和幼苗盖度显著增加(p<0.05),土壤速效磷、全钾、速效钾和有机质含量呈增加趋势,但未达显著水平;煤矿区排土场不覆土和覆土处理,植被特征和土壤理化性质主要指标差异不显著;非度量多维尺度分析结果表明:影响高寒煤矿区排土场植被生长的主要土壤养分是全氮、速效氮、速效钾和有机质。[结论] 高寒矿区露天煤矿排土场植被恢复的关键措施不是覆土处理,可通过施足有机肥和化肥的方式代替覆土处理达到植被恢复的目的。
关键词:  植被恢复  覆土处理  排土场  露天煤矿  高寒矿区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.012
分类号:S812.3;TD88
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“青藏高原露天煤矿排土场地形—土壤—植被响应机理及地貌重塑研究”(41977415);青海木里煤田矿区人工植被种群自我更新与调控对策研究(41867073);高等学校学科创新引智计划资助(D18013);教育部长江学者和创新团队发展计划(IRT-17R62)
Effects of Replacing Topsoil Treatment on Vegetation and Soil Characteristics of Open-pit Coal Mine Dump in Alpine Mining Area
Gao Zhixiang1, Li Xilai1,2, Zhang Jing1,2, Jin Liqun1, Zhou Wei3
1.College of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Qinghai University, Xining, Qinghai 810016, China;2.Qinghai-Guangdong Joint Laboratory of Natural Resources Monitoring and Evaluation, Qinghai University, Xining, Qinghai 810016, China;3.College of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The influence of replacing topsoil treatment on vegetation restoration of open-pit coal dumps in alpine mining area was investigated to evaluate the vegetation restoration effect of replacing topsoil treatment in open-pit coal mine dumps and to provide a technical basis for ecological protection and restoration in an mining area.[Methods] The vegetation community characteristics and soil physicochemical properties of five topsoil replaced and three topsoil unreplaced treatments in mining areas in the Muli coalfield of Qinghai Province were investigated and analyzed.[Results] Vegetation and seedling coverage significantly increased (p<0.05) as the planting period increased, and the available phosphorus, total potassium, available potassium, and organic matter content in the soil showed an increasing trend, but it was not significant. There was no significant difference between replacing and not replacing topsoil treatments in vegetation characteristics and soil physical and chemical properties. The results of nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the soil nutrients, including total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium, and organic matter, were the main factors affecting the vegetation growth.[Conclusion] The key measure of vegetation restoration in open-pit coal mine dumps in alpine grasslands is not the replacement of topsoil treatment but the addition of organic and chemical fertilizers.
Key words:  vegetation and soil characteristics  replacing topsoil treatment  mine dump  open-pit coal mine  alpine mining area