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牛栏江流域上游保护区“四型”小流域水土流失治理模式
弥智娟1,2, 郑涛3, 姜宏雷1,2, 朱艳艳1,2, 黄俊文1,2, 穆兴民4,5
1.云南省水利水电勘测设计研究院, 云南 昆明 650021;2.云南秀川环境工程技术有限公司, 云南 昆明 650021;3.中国能源建设集团云南省电力设计院有限公司, 云南 昆明 650051;4.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 黄土高原 土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;5.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 分析牛栏江流域上游保护区水土流失治理模式,以期为流域水土流失治理提供新的思路。[方法] 基于DEM数据在ArcGIS内进行子流域自动提取,结合遥感影像进行人工交互解译、修正以确定子流域;以划分的子流域为基本单元进行定性与定量赋分并计算综合得分,依据综合得分确定流域水土保持分区及其主导功能;根据确定的水土保持分区主导功能进行“四型”小流域治理模式配置。[结果] 牛栏江流域上游保护区共划分9个子流域,确定4个水土保持分区;在各水土保持分区分别构建以生态安全型、生态景观型、生态经济型和生态清洁型为主的“四型”小流域治理模式。[结论] 子流域可作为牛栏江流域上游保护区“四型”小流域水土流失治理模式配置的基本单元,水土保持主导功能可作为“四型”小流域模式配置的依据,提供因型施策、精准至区的水土流失科学治理模式。
关键词:  “四型”小流域  牛栏江  治理模式
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.031
分类号:S157.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“黄土区地表产流机制变化对植被恢复的响应”(42077075)
Soil and Water Loss Control Model on “Four-Type” Small Watersheds at Reserve Zone of Upstream Area in Niulan River Basin
Mi Zhijuan1,2, Zheng Tao3, Jiang Honglei1,2, Zhu Yanyan1,2, Huang Junwen1,2, Mu Xingmin4,5
1.Yunnan Institute of Water & Hydropower Engineering Investigation, Design and Research, Kunming, Yunnan 650021, China;2.Yunnan Xiuchuan Environmental Engineering Technique Co., Ltd, Kunming, Yunnan 650021, China;3.China Energy Engineering Group, Yunnan Electric Power Design Institute Co. Ltd, Kunming, Yunnan 650051, China;4.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;5.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] A comprehensive control model of soil and water loss at the reserve zone of the upstream area in Niulan River basin was analyzed to provide new ideas for a water and soil loss control in the basin.[Methods] The subbasins were extracted automatically using ArcGIS based on digital elevation model data. Then, the subbasin was merged and revised manually with the assistance of remote-sensing images. Every subbasin that was determined with the human-computer interaction method was scored using qualitative and quantitative methods to calculate a comprehensive score. The zones of soil and water conservation and their dominant functions were obtained according to the comprehensive scoring of each subbasin. The control model of a "four-type" small watershed was proposed by analyzing the dominant functions of all the zones of soil and water conservation.[Results] The reserve zone of the Niulan River upstream area was divided into nine subbasins and four areas. The "four-type" small watershed management model was set up in the reserve zone of Niulan River upstream area; moreover, the four partitions of soil and water conservation were matched with the "four-type" control model, comprising the types of ecological security, ecological landscape, ecological economy, and ecological cleanness.[Conclusion] The subbasin can be used as the basic unit of the "four-type" small watershed in the upstream protection area of Niulan River basin, and the dominant functions of soil and water conservation can be used as the basis for the configuration of the "four-type" small watershed model. It provides a scientific control model for soil and water conservation in accordance with the type and precision of the partition.
Key words:  “four-type” small watersheds  Niulan River  control model