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中老缅交界区2005-2017年土地利用/覆被变化及其生态状况
张磊1, 武友德2,3, 李君4
1.泰山学院 旅游学院, 山东 泰安 271000;2.云南师范大学 孟加拉湾地区研究中心/缅甸研究中心, 云南 昆明 650500;3.云南师范大学 中国西南地缘环境与边疆发展协同创新中心, 云南 昆明 650500;4.云南师范大学 经济与管理学院, 云南 昆明 650500
摘要:
[目的] 以中老缅(中国-老挝-缅甸)3国接壤地带为例,通过对其土地利用/覆被的演变过程及生态状况的评估,为该区土地资源的合理利用与生态风险的降低防控提供依据。[方法] 基于研究区土地利用/覆被遥感影像数据,通过构建土地利用/覆被变化趋势与状态指数等模型,对其2005-2017年的演变过程及生态状况进行测度。[结果] ①研究区以林地、耕地为主导,土地利用组合的一致性较强,但作为多国接壤地带,该区土地利用程度存在一定的国别分异;②随时间演进,研究区土地利用的结构及变化幅度均发生了显著的时空及地类分异,其中林地扩张显著,耕地大幅减少而草地及水体的面积变化相对平稳,后6 a的土地利用变化幅度整体高于前6 a;③12 a间,研究区土地利用变化整体呈不平衡状态,各地类间的变化趋势与状态差异较为显著。随时间演进,受林地外延扩张态势减弱等影响,研究区土地利用变化的稳定性有所增强,但各地类间的变化趋势与状态差异略显增加;④2005-2017年,研究区生态状况整体改善,且国别与空间分异有所减小,12 a间,老挝段生态状况整体较优,缅甸段次之,而中国段的生态状况相对较差,生态综合功能高值区与3国交界处间的距离整体减小。[结论] 研究区土地利用/覆被的演变过程及生态状况存在一定的国别分异及阶段性变动特征,中老缅3国对其接壤地带生态本底功能的修复与提升工作正不断增强。
关键词:  土地利用/覆被变化  演变过程  生态状况  多国地缘交界区  中老缅接壤地带
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.034
分类号:F301.2
基金项目:国家社会科学基金重大项目“中缅泰老‘黄金四角’跨流域合作与共生治理体系研究”(16ZDA041);国家自然科学基金项目(41761031,41461037); 2020年山东省重点研发计划(软科学项目)(2020RKB01507);泰山学院博士科研启动基金(Y-02-2020013)。
Ecological Status and Land Use/Cover Change at Border Zone Between China, Laos and Myanmar
Zhang Lei1, Wu Youde2,3, Li Jun4
1.Tourism College, Taishan University, Tai'an, Shandong 271000, China;2.Center for Bay of Bengal Area Studies/Center for Myanmar Studies of Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China;3.Collaborative Innovation Center for Geopolitical Setting of Southwest China and Borderland Development, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China;4.School of Economics and Management, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The border zone of China, Laos, and Myanmar were used as an example to provide the basis for the rational use of land resources and the reduction and prevention of ecological risk in this area through the evaluation of the development process and ecological status of land use/cover.[Methods] Based on the remote sensing image data of land use/cover in the study area, the evolution process and ecological status of land use/cover in the 12 years from 2005 to 2017 were measured by building models, such as land-use/cover change trend and state index models.[Results] ① The study area was dominated by forest and cultivated land, and the consistency of land-use combination was strong. However, because this area is the border zone of several countries, the degree of land use in this area had some national differences. ② Over time, the structure and change range of land use in the study area underwent significant spatio-temporal and land-type differentiation. The forest land expanded significantly, the cultivated land decreased significantly, and the area of grassland and water changed relatively smoothly. The land-use change in the last six years of the study period was higher than that in the previous six years. ③ During the 12-year study period, the overall land-use change in the study area was unbalanced, and the change trend and status of different land types were significantly different. Over time, the stability of land-use change in the study area was enhanced because of the weakening of forest-land extension and expansion, but the change trend and status difference between different land-use types slightly increased. ④ Over time, the ecological status of the study area improved as a whole, and the country-specific and spatial differentiation decreased. During the 12-year study period, the ecological status of the Laos section showed the most improvement, followed by the Myanmar section and the Chinese section. The distance between the high-value zone of the ecological comprehensive function and the junction of the three countries decreased as a whole.[Conclusion] The evolution process and ecological status of land use/cover in the study area have certain characteristics of national differentiation and stage change. China, Laos, and Myanmar are continuously improving the ecological background function of their border zone.
Key words:  land use/cover change  evolution process  ecological status  China, Laos, and Myanmar border zone