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2014-2017年赣江上游稀土矿区典型流域水质污染变化及成因
许燕颖1, 邹杰平1, 刘友存1,2, 陈明1,2, 曾金凤3,4, 刘正芳1, 李奇1,5
1.江西理工大学 资源与环境工程学院, 江西 赣州 341000;2.江西省矿冶环境污染控制重点实验室, 江西 赣州 341000;3.江西理工大学 土木与测绘工程学院, 江西 赣州 341000;4.江西省赣州市水文局, 江西 赣州 341000;5.江西环境工程职业学院 生态建设与环境保护学院, 江西 赣州 341000
摘要:
[目的] 分析赣江上游稀土矿区典型流域水质的时空分布特征,揭示水质污染状况和成因,为该流域的水环境治理提供理论依据和数据支撑。[方法] 采用2014-2017年赣江上游桃江流域10个监测断面的6项水质指标,运用描述性统计分析、水污染指数法、相关性分析等方法分析该流域水质污染现状及其成因。[结果] ①桃江流域各监测断面不同水文时期的污染状况均存在差异,以氨氮含量的时空差异最为明显。②水污染指数评价结果表明水质类别为Ⅱ类和Ⅲ类所占比例分别为55%和29%,龙头滩断面的水质状况最差,以劣Ⅴ类为主。[结论] 水质污染成因解析揭示出氨氮为桃江流域最主要的污染物,降雨对流域内水环境的影响较大,农业活动和以稀土采选为主的工业活动是造成水环境污染的重要人为活动。
关键词:  稀土矿区  水质污染调查  污染评价  成因解析  赣江上游
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.01.041
分类号:X824
基金项目:江西省自然科学基金项目“赣南稀土矿区典型流域侵蚀沉积过程与重金属元素迁移转化机理研究”(20181BAB203026);国家自然科学基金项目“稀土矿区典型流域水沙过程与氨氮及重金属多界面迁移机制研究”(41861002)、江西省“千人计划”创新人才长期项目“赣江上游稀土矿区流域水资源水环境研究”(JXSQ2018106049)、赣州市创新人才项目(赣市科发2019[60]号)
Pollution Change and Cause of Water Quality in Typical Watersheds of Rare Earth Mining Area in Upper Ganjiang River During 2014-2017
Xu Yanying1, Zou Jieping1, Liu Youcun1,2, Chen Ming1,2, Zeng Jinfeng3,4, Liu Zhengfang1, Li Qi1,5
1.School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000, China;2.Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control in Mining and Metallurgy of Jiangxi Province, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000, China;3.School of Architectural and Surveying & Mapping Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000, China;4.Hydrology Bureau in Ganzhou, Jiangxi Province, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000, China;5.School of Ecological Construction and Environmental Protection, Jiangxi Environmental Engineering Vocational College, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The temporal and spatial distributions of water quality in a typical basin of rare earth mining areas in the Upper Ganjiang River were analyzed to reveal the change and causes of water pollution and provide a theoretical basis and data support for water environment governance.[Methods] Three methods-descriptive statistical analysis, water pollution index, and correlation analysis-were used to analyze the six water quality indicators of 10 monitoring sections in the Taojiang River basin from 2014 to 2017.[Results] ① The pollution status of each monitoring section of the Taojiang River basin in various hydrological periods was different, and the temporal and spatial differences in ammonia nitrogen content were the most obvious. ② The evaluation results of the water pollution index showed that the water qualities of type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ accounted for 55% and 29%, respectively. The Longtou beach section was dominated by type Ⅴ water, with the worst water quality.[Conclusion] Analysis of the causes of water pollution revealed that ammonia nitrogen was the most dominant pollutant in Taojiang River basin. Rainfall had a significant impact on the water environment in that basin. Moreover, industrial activities, dominated by rare earth mining, as well as various agricultural activities, were important factors causing water environmental pollution.
Key words:  rare earth mining area  water pollution investigation  pollution evaluation  cause analysis  Upper Ganjiang River