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黄土高原典型流域河川径流水文情势变化及其归因分析
张舒羽1, 赵广举1,2, 穆兴民1,2, 田鹏3, 高鹏1,2, 孙文义1,2
1.西北农林科技大学 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.西北农林科技大学 资源与环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
[目的] 分析黄土高原典型流域河川径流水文情势变化及其原因,为该区域水土保持与水资源高效利用提供科学支撑。[方法] 选取渭河支流散渡河与无定河支流大理河为研究区,利用甘谷站和绥德站1965—2018年的气象水文资料,采用线性回归、Mann-Kendall检验、累积距平和双累积曲线法分析散渡河和大理河的径流变化特征及其驱动因素,采用改进的RVA法分析梯田和淤地坝为主的水土保持措施对不同河流水文情势变化的影响。[结果] 两条河流的年径流量呈显著减少趋势(p<0.01),并在20世纪90年代前后发生突变。采用改进的变异性范围(RVA)法计算散渡河和大理河的径流综合改变度分别属高度改变(90.12%)和中度改变(60.66%),32个水文变化指标中,流量变化改变率指标受到的影响最为显著。[结论] 以梯田措施为主的散渡河月中值流量和年最小流量均大幅减小,年最小流量发生时间明显延迟且低流量脉冲历时增加。以坝库工程为主的大理河月中值流量受季节变化影响,年最小1 d和3 d流量增加且低流量脉冲次数减小。
关键词:  黄土高原  河川径流  水文变化指标  RVA法  水土保持  驱动因素
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.001
分类号:TV121.4;P333
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“黄河水沙变化机理与趋势预测”(2016YFC0402401);国家自然科学基金项目(42077076;42077075);中国科学院“西部之光”项目(XAB2017A03)
Hydrologic Regime Change and Its Attribution Analysis of River Runoff in Typical Watershed on Loess Plateau
Zhang Shuyu1, Zhao Guangju1,2, Mu Xingmin1,2, Tian Peng3, Gao Peng1,2, Sun Wenyi1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.College of Resource and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The hydrologic regime change in typical watershed on Loess Plateau was studied, and its attribution analysis was carried out, in order to provide scientific support for soil and water conservation and efficient utilization of water resources in different regions of the Loess Plateau. [Methods] Sandu River (a tributary of Weihe River) and Dali River (a tributary of Wuding River) were selected as the study areas, and the traits in variations of streamflow and their driving factors from 1965 to 2018 were analyzed based on meteorological and hydrological data at Gangu and Suide hydrological stations by using the linear regression, Mann-Kendall test, accumulated anomaly, and double mass curve methods. The improved range of variability approach was employed to analyze the impact of the hydrological alterations in different river by soil and water conservation dominated by terracing and damming. [Results] The annual runoff showed significant decreasing trends(p<0.01) and the abrupt changes occurred in around 1990s in Sandu River and Dali River. The alteration degree of runoff in Sandu River was high (90.12%) and in Dali River was moderate (60.66%) calculated by the improved range of variability approach (RVA) method. Among 32 indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA), the rise and fall rate of flow were affected most significantly. [Conclusion] In the Sandu River (dominated by terracing), both the magnitude of monthly median flow and the annual minimum flow decreased dramatically, timing of annual minimum flow delayed and duration of low pulses increased. In the Dali River (dominated by damming), the magnitude of monthly median flow depended on the seasonal alteration. The annual 1-day and 3-day minimum flow increased and frequency of low pulses declined.
Key words:  Loess Plateau  river runoff  indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA)  range of variability approach (RVA)  soil and water conservation  driving factors