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红河干热河谷林草地红壤中优先流的形态分布特征
朱梦雪1, 赵洋毅1,2, 段旭1,2, 王克勤1,2, 万艳萍1, 卢华兴1, 邱砚海3, 杜云祥3
1.西南林业大学 生态与环境学院, 云南 昆明 650224;2.国家林业和草原局 云南玉溪森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 云南 昆明 650224;3.新平彝族傣族自治县水利局, 云南 玉溪 653400
摘要:
[目的] 在红河干热河谷地区开展优先流形态分布特征及与红壤特性关系的研究,为区域水资源管理和防治水土流失等工作提供理论依据。[方法] 以干热河谷地区典型植被林地和荒草地为研究对象,采用野外染色示踪法并结合图像处理技术研究优先流的形态分布特征及对红壤特性响应。[结果] ①林草地上层剖面平均染色面积分别为87.20%和91.97%,染色面积随土层的增加而减小,局部深度内染色面积出现反弹现象;林草地优先流长度指数分别为766.8%和730.0%,林地土壤优先流较荒草地发达;林草地的最大染色深度分别为40 cm和35 cm;②染色路径宽度随土层的增加而减小,0—20 cm土层内以大于250 mm的路径为主,20—40 cm内的染色路径在20—250 mm,而在40 cm以下的土层染色路径集中在20 mm以内;③优先流染色面积比、长度指数、染色路径宽度与土壤因子存在显著相关性,总孔隙度、有机质、含水率等对染色面积比(DA)、长度指数(LI)、染色路径宽度(SPW)累积贡献率分别为97.80%,86.95%,87.45%;含水率、有机质、容重、总孔隙度和Al3+等因子与染色面积比、染色路径宽度呈最优线性关系。[结论] 土壤的孔隙特性、盐基离子和土壤质地等的共同作用最终导致红河干热河谷林草地优先流的差异。
关键词:  红河干热河谷  土壤优先流  染色示踪法  染色面积  土壤因子
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.002
分类号:S714.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(42067005;31860235);云南省基础研究计划项目(202001AT070136);云南省万人计划青年拔尖人才专项(YNWR-QNBJ-2019-215;YNWR-QNBJ-2019-226);国家林草局林业科技创新平台运行项目:云南玉溪森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站(2020132078);云南玉溪森林生态系统国家长期科研基地(2020132550);云南省自然生态监测网络项目(2020-YN-13)
Morphological Distribution Characteristics of Preferential Flow in Red Soil of Forest and Grassland in Arid and Hot Valley of Honghe River
Zhu Mengxue1, Zhao Yangyi1,2, Duan Xu1,2, Wang Keqin1,2, Wan Yanping1, Lu Huaxing1, Qiu Yanhai3, Du Yunxiang3
1.College of Ecology and Environment, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, Yunnan 650224, Chain;2.Yuxi Forestry Ecosystem Research Station of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Kunming, Yunnan 650224, China;3.Xinping Yi and Dai Autonomous County Water Resources Bureau, Yuxi, Yunnan 653400, Chain
Abstract:
[Objective] The preferential flow morphology and characteristics of red soil in the arid and hot valley of the Honghe River was studied, in order to provide theoretical basis for regional water resources management and soil erosion prevention. [Methods] Taking typical vegetation—woodlands and wild grasslands in arid and hot valley regions as the research objects, the morphological distribution characteristics of preferential flow and its response to the characteristics of read soil were studied by using field dye tracing method and image processing technology. [Results] ① The average stained area of forest and grassland was 87.2% and 91.97% respectively. The stained area decreased with the increase of soil layer, and rebounded in local depths. The preferential flow length index of forest and grassland was 766.8% and 730.0% respectively. And the priority flow of the forest was more developed than wasteland. The maximum staining depth of forest and grassland was 40 cm and 35 cm respectively. ② The width of the dyeing path decreases with the increase of the soil layer. In the 0—20 cm soil layer, the main dyeing path was greater than 250 mm. The dyeing path within 20—40 cm was mainly in the layer between 20—250 mm, and the dyeing path was less than 20 mm in the soil layer below 40 cm. ③ There were significant correlations between the priority flow dyeing area, length index, dyeing path width and soil factors. The cumulative contribution rate of total porosity, organic matter, and moisture content to dyeing area ratio (DA), length index (LI) and dyeing path width (SPW) was 97.8%, 86.95%, 87.45%, respectively. The factors such as moisture content, organic matter, bulk density, total porosity and Al3+ had the best linear relationship with dyeing area and dyeing path. [Conclusion] The combined effects of soil pore characteristics, base ions, and soil texture ultimately led to the difference in preferential flow between forest and grassland in the arid and hot valley of the Honghe River.
Key words:  the arid and hot valley of the Red River  preferential flow of soil  dye tracer method  dying area  soil factors